Angiogenesis in implantation

  • Donald S. TorryEmail author
  • Jonathan Leavenworth
  • Miao Chang
  • Vatsala Maheshwari
  • Kathleen Groesch
  • Evan R. Ball
  • Ronald J. Torry



Implantation failure and early pregnancy loss are common following natural conceptions and they are particularly important clinical hurdles to overcome following assisted reproduction attempts. The importance of adequate vascular development and maintenance during implantation has recently become a major focus of investigation.

Materials and methods

Review of current published literature was undertaken to summerize the cells and cell products that regulate tissue vascularity during implantation.


Vascular development at the maternal fetal interface can be regulated by a number of different cell types; two principal candidates are trophoblast and natural killer cells. A wide range of soluble factors, some with well established angiogenic functions as well as other more novel factors, can contribute to vascular development and maintenance at the maternal–fetal interface.


Robust vascular development occurs during implantation and early placentation of normal pregnancies. Studies to define the extent and mechanisms by which defects in vascularity contribute to human implantation failure and early miscarriage need to be undertaken.


Angiogenesis Growth factors Implantation Miscarriage Pregnancy Trophoblast Vasculogenesis 



Supported in part by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2RO1 HD36830) (DST), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (R15 HL072802) (RJT), and March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (DST).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald S. Torry
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jonathan Leavenworth
    • 1
    • 2
  • Miao Chang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vatsala Maheshwari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kathleen Groesch
    • 1
    • 2
  • Evan R. Ball
    • 3
  • Ronald J. Torry
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Cell BiologySouthern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfieldUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologySouthern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfieldUSA
  3. 3.College of Pharmacy and Health SciencesDrake UniversityDes MoinesUSA

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