Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 25–32 | Cite as

Preliminary Experience with Low Concentration of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A Potential Regulator in Preimplantation Mouse Embryo Development and Apoptosis

  • Barry BehrEmail author
  • Stephen Mooney
  • Yan Wen
  • Mary Lake Polan
  • Hongbo Wang
Animal Experimentation


Purpose: To investigate the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the development of preimplantation mouse embryos.

Methods: Mouse 2-cell embryos were collected and cultured in P-1 medium supplemented with GM-CSF at different concentrations. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, expression Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA in blastocyst were evaluated in the GM-CSF group and control group. Apoptosis detection was performed using the in situ apoptosis detection kit in mouse blastocysts. The statistical significance of the data was analyzed using t-test and chi-square test.

Results: The development of blastocyst increased to 89% in the addition of GM-CSF (0.125 ng/mL), compared to controlled group (80%). The number of cells staining for apoptosis was lower in GM-CSF group than that in the control group. Bcl-2 expression was found to be upregulated in blastocysts in the GM-CSF supplemented group compared to the control group.

Conclusion: These results suggest that GM-CSF might be an important regulator in embryo development.


Apoptosis blastocyst development GM-CSF in vivo blastocyst 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Behr
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephen Mooney
    • 1
  • Yan Wen
    • 1
  • Mary Lake Polan
    • 1
  • Hongbo Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford University School of MedicineStanford

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