Advertisement

Journal of Archaeological Research

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 257–307 | Cite as

Nothing Lasts Forever: Environmental Discourses on the Collapse of Past Societies

  • Guy D. Middleton
Article

Abstract

The study of the collapse of past societies raises many questions for the theory and practice of archaeology. Interest in collapse extends as well into the natural sciences and environmental and sustainability policy. Despite a range of approaches to collapse, the predominant paradigm is environmental collapse, which I argue obscures recognition of the dynamic role of social processes that lie at the heart of human communities. These environmental discourses, together with confusion over terminology and the concepts of collapse, have created widespread aporia about collapse and resulted in the creation of mixed messages about complex historical and social processes.

Keywords

Collapse Determinism Environment Narrative Resilience 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Gary Feinman, George Cowgill, Oliver Dickinson, Linda Nicholas, and the six anonymous reviewers for their constructive criticism and numerous suggestions, all of which have improved this article. I am also grateful to Halvard Buhaug, Mike Charles, Elizabeth French, Mark Geller, Maria Iacovou, Jane Rempel, and Tom Tartaron, who kindly sent me copies of their work, and to Peter Robinson who discussed an early draft.

References cited

  1. Abate, T. (1994). Climate and the collapse of civilization. Bioscience 44: 516–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abel, T. (2007). Pulsing and cultural evolution in China. In Brown, M. T. (ed.), Emergy Synthesis 4: Theory and Applications of the Emergy Methodology, The Center for Environmental Policy, Gainesville, FL, pp. 37.1–37.18.Google Scholar
  3. Acuna-Soto, R., Stahle, D. W., Therrell, M. D., Chavez, S. G., and Cleaveland, M. K. (2005). Drought, epidemic disease, and the fall of Classic period cultures in Mesoamerica (AD 750–950): Hemorrhagic fevers as a cause of massive population loss. Medical Hypotheses 65: 405–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams, R. M. (1988). Contexts of civilizational collapse: A Mesopotamian view. In Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 20–43.Google Scholar
  5. Aimers, J. J. (2007). What Maya collapse? Terminal Classic variation in the Maya Lowlands. Journal of Archaeological Research 15: 329–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akbari, M. E., Farshad, A. A., and Asadi-Lari, M. (2004). The devastation of Bam: An overview of health issues 1 month after the earthquake. Public Health 118: 403–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alcock, S. E., D’Altroy, T. N., Morrison, K. D., and Sinopoli, C. M. (eds.) (2001). Empires, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  8. Allen, M. S. (2006). New ideas about Late Holocene climate variability in the central Pacific. Current Anthropology 47: 521–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen, M. S. (2010). Oscillating climate and socio-political process: The case of the Marquesan chiefdom, Polynesia. Antiquity 84: 86–102.Google Scholar
  10. Alley, R. B. (2000). The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  11. Ambraseys, N. N. (2005). Archaeoseismology and neocatastrophism. Seismological Research Letters 76: 560–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ambraseys, N. N. (2006). Earthquakes and archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Sciences 33: 1008–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Anderson, A. (2002). Faunal collapse, landscape change and settlement history in Remote Oceania. World Archaeology 33: 375–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Anderson, D. G. (1994). The Savannah River Chiefdoms: Political Change in the Late Prehistoric Southeast, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
  15. Anderson, D. G. (1996). Fluctuations between simple and complex chiefdoms: Cycling in the late prehistoric southwest. In Scarry, J. F. (ed.), Political Structures and Change in the Prehistoric Southeastern United States, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, pp. 231–252.Google Scholar
  16. Anderson, E. N., and Chase-Dunn, C. (2005). The rise and fall of great powers. In Chase-Dunn, C., and Anderson, E. N. (eds.), The Historical Evolution of World-Systems, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  17. Andrews, A. P. (1990). The fall of Chichen Itza: A preliminary hypothesis. Latin American Antiquity 1: 258–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Andrews, A. P. (1993). Late Postclassic Lowland Maya archaeology. Journal of World Prehistory 7: 35–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Andrews, A. P., Andrews, E. W., and Castellanos, F. R. (2003). The northern Maya collapse and its aftermath. Ancient Mesoamerica 14: 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Andrews, E. W. (1973). The development of Maya civilization after the abandonment of the southern cities. In Culbert, T. P. (ed.), The Classic Maya Collapse, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 243–265.Google Scholar
  21. Ando, C. (2008). Decline, fall, and transformation. Journal of Late Antiquity 1: 31–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Antonopoulos, J. (1992). The great Minoan eruption of Thera volcano and the ensuing tsunami on the Greek archipelago. Natural Hazards 5: 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ardren, T. (2005). Review of Webster, D., The Fall of the Ancient Maya: Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse [2002]. Latin American Antiquity 16: 225–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bachhuber, C., and Roberts, R. G. (eds.) (2009). Forces of Transformation: The End of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean, Oxbow Books, Oxford.Google Scholar
  25. Bahn, P., and Flenley, J. (1992). Easter Island, Earth Island, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  26. Barlow, L. K., Sadler, J. P., Ogilvie, A. E. J., Buckland, P. C., Amorosi, T. Ingimundarson, J. H., Skidmore, P., Dugmore, A. J., and McGovern, T. H. (1997). Interdisciplinary investigations of the end of the Norse Western Settlement in Greenland. The Holocene 7: 489–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bawden, G., and Reycraft, R. M. (eds.) (2000). Environmental Disaster and the Archaeology of Human Response, Anthropological Papers No. 7, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Albuquerque, NM.Google Scholar
  28. Behringer, W. (2010). A Cultural History of Climate, Polity Press, London.Google Scholar
  29. Bell, B. (1971). The Dark Ages in ancient history: 1. The first Dark Age in Egypt. American Journal of Archaeology 75: 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bennet, J. (2007). The Aegean Bronze Age. In Morris, I., Saller, R., and Scheidel, W. (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 175–210.Google Scholar
  31. Benson, L. V., and Berry, M. S. (2009). Climate change and cultural response in the prehistoric American Southwest. Kiva 75: 89–119.Google Scholar
  32. Benson, L. V., Petersen, K., and Stein, J. (2007). Anasazi (Pre-Columbian Native American) migrations during the middle-12th and late-13th centuries: Were they drought induced? Climatic Change 83: 187–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Benson, L. V., Pauketat, T. R., and Cook, E. R. (2009). Cahokia’s boom and bust in the context of climate change. American Antiquity 74: 467–483.Google Scholar
  34. Bentor, Y. K. (1989). Geological events in the Bible. Terra Nova 1: 326–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Berglund, J. (1986). The decline of the Norse settlements in Greenland. Arctic Anthropology 23: 109–135.Google Scholar
  36. Berglund, J. (2010). Did the medieval Norse society in Greenland really fail? In McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.), Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 45–70.Google Scholar
  37. Betancourt, P. P. 2000. The Aegean and the origins of the Sea Peoples. In Oren, E. D. (ed.), The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 297–303. Google Scholar
  38. Bevan, A. (2010). Political geography and palatial Crete. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 23: 27–54.Google Scholar
  39. Binford, M., Kolata, A. L., Brenner, M., Janusek, J., Seddon, M., Abbott, M., and Curtis, J. (1997). Climate variation and the rise and fall of an Andean civilization. Quaternary Research 47: 235–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bloedow, E. F. (1995). Human and environmental interaction in the emergence and decline of Mycenaean state and society. In Laffineur, R., and Niemeier, W-D. (eds.), Politeia: Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age, Aegaeum 12, University of Liège, Liège, pp. 639–648.Google Scholar
  41. Blunt, A. (2003). Geographies of diaspora and mixed descent: Anglo-Indians in India and Britain. International Journal of Population Geography 9: 281–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Botkin, D. (1990). Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  43. Bowersock, G. W. (1988). The dissolution of the Roman Empire. In Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 165–175.Google Scholar
  44. Bowersock, G. W. (1996). The vanishing paradigm of the fall of Rome. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 49: 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Bowes, K., and Gutteridge, A. (2005). Rethinking the later Roman landscape. Journal of Roman Archaeology 18: 405–413.Google Scholar
  46. Bowman, A. K. (1996). Egypt After the Pharaohs: 332 BC – AD 642 from Alexander to after the Arab Conquest, 2nd paperback ed., British Museum Press, London.Google Scholar
  47. Bronson, B. (1988). The role of barbarians in the fall of states. In Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 196–218.Google Scholar
  48. Bronson, B. (2006). Patterns of political regenerations in Southeast and East Asia. In Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 137–143.Google Scholar
  49. Brooks, N. (2006). Cultural responses to aridity in the Middle Holocene and increased social complexity. Quaternary International 151: 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bruins, H. J. (2010). Dating Pharaonic Egypt. Science 328: 1489–1490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bruins, H. J., MacGillivray, J. A., Synolakis, C. E., Benjamini, C., Keller, J., Kisch, H. J., Klügel, A., and van der Plicht, J. (2008). Geoarchaeological tsunami deposits at Palaikastro (Crete) and the Late Minoan IA eruption of Santorini. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 191–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bryce, T. (2005a). The Kingdom of the Hittites, new ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Bryce T. (2005b). The last days of Hattusa. Archaeology Odyssey 8(1): 32–41, 51.Google Scholar
  54. Bryson, R. A. (1994). On integrating climatic change and culture change studies. Human Ecology 22: 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Buckland, P. C., Amorosi, T., Barlow, L. K., Dugmore, A. J., Mayewksi, P. A., McGovern, T. H., Ogilvie, A. E., Sadler, J. P., and Skidmore, P. (1996). Bioarchaeological and climatalogical evidence for the fate of Norse farmers in medieval Greenland. Antiquity 70: 88–96.Google Scholar
  56. Buckley, B. M., Anchukaitis, K. J., Penny, D., Fletcher, R., Cook, E. R., Sano, M., Nam, L. C., Wichienkeeo, A., Minh, T. T., and Hong, T. M. (2010). Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 6748–6752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Büntgen, U., Tegel, W., Nicolussi, K., McCormick, M., Frank, D., Trouet, V., Kaplan, J. O., Herzig, F., Heussner, K-U., Wanner, H., Luterbacher, J., and Esper, J. (2011). 2500 years of European climate variability and human susceptibility. Science 331(6017): 578–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Burroughs, W. J. (2005). Climate Change in Prehistory: The End of the Reign of Chaos, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Butzer, K. W. (1982). Archaeology as Human Ecology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Calaway, M. J. (2005). Ice-cores, sediments, and civilisation collapse: A cautionary tale. Antiquity 79: 778–790.Google Scholar
  61. Campbell, R. B. (2009). Toward a networks and boundaries approach to early complex polities: The Late Shang case. Current Anthropology 50: 821–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Caplan, L. (2001). Children of Colonialism: Anglo-Indians in a Postcolonial World, Berg, Oxford.Google Scholar
  63. Catto, N., and Catto, G. (2004). Climate change, communities, and civilizations: Driving force, supporting player, or background noise? Quaternary International 123-125: 7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Chamberlain, A. T. (2006). Demography in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Charles, M., Pessin, H., and Hald, M. M. (2010). Tolerating change at Late Chalcolithic Tell Brak: Responses of an early urban society to an uncertain climate. Environmental Archaeology 15: 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Chase, D. Z., and Chase, A. F. (2006). Framing the Maya collapse: Continuity, discontinuity, method, and practice in the Classic to Postclassic southern Maya lowlands. In Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 168–187.Google Scholar
  67. Chepstow-Lusty, A. J., Bennett, K. D., Switsur, V. R., and Kendall, A. (1996). 4000 years of human impact and vegetation change in the central Peruvian Andes – with events paralleling the Maya record? Antiquity 70: 824–833.Google Scholar
  68. Chester, D. K., Duncan, A. M., Guest, J. E., Johnston, P. A., and Smolenaars, J. J. (2000). Human response to Etna volcano during the Classical period. In McGuire, W. G., Griffiths, D. R., Hancock, P. L., and Stewart, I. S. (eds.), The Archaeology of Geological Catastrophes, Special Publications 171, Geological Society, London, pp. 179–188.Google Scholar
  69. Chew, S. C. (2001). World Ecological Degradation: Accumulation, Urbanization, and Deforestation, 3000 BC – AD 2000. AltaMira, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
  70. Chew, S. C. (2002). Globalisation, ecological crisis, and dark ages. Global Society 16: 333–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Chew, S. C. (2005). From Harappa to Mesopotamia and Egypt to Mycenae: Dark Ages, political-economic declines, and environmental/climatic changes. In Chase-Dunn, C., and Anderson, E. N. (eds.), The Historical Evolution of World-Systems, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 52–74.Google Scholar
  72. Christie, P. (2008). The Curse of Akkad: Climate Upheavals that Rocked Human History, Annick Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  73. Cobos, R. (2004). Chichén Itzá: Settlement and hegemony during the Terminal Classic period. In Demarest, A. A., Rice, P. M., and Rice, D. S. (eds.), Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition and Transformation, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 517–544.Google Scholar
  74. Coombes, P., and Barber, K. (2005). Environmental determinism in Holocene research: Causality or coincidence? Area 37: 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Costanza, R., Graumlich, L. J., and Steffen, W. (2007a). Sustainability or Collapse? An Integrated History and Future of People on Earth, Dahlem University Press and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  76. Costanza, R., Graumlich, L., Steffen, W., Crumley, C., Dearing, J., Hibbard, K., Leemans, R., Redman, C., and Schimel, D. (2007b). Sustainability or collapse: What can we learn from integrating the history of humans and the rest of nature? Ambio 36: 522–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Courty, M.-A. (2001). Evidence at Tell Brak for the Late ED III/Early Akkadian Air Blast Event (4 kyr BP). In Oates, D., Oates, J., and McDonald, H. (eds.), Excavations at Tell Brak Volume 2: Nagar in the Third Millenium BC, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, pp. 367–372.Google Scholar
  78. Covey, R. A. (2008). Multiregional perspectives on the archaeology of the Andes during the Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 1000–1400). Journal of Archaeological Research 16: 287–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Cowgill, G. L. (1988). Onward and upward with collapse. In Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 244–276.Google Scholar
  80. Cowgill, G. L. (1997). State and society at Teotihuacan, Mexico. Annual Review of Anthropology 26: 129–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Cowgill, G. L. (in press-a). Concepts of collapse and regeneration in human history. In Nichols, D., and Pool, C. (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Google Scholar
  82. Cowgill, G. L. (in press-b). Migrations, disruptions, and identities in the central Mexican Epiclassic. Ancient Mesoamerica. Google Scholar
  83. CRED (2010). Haiti earthquake brief. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster, Université catholique de Louvain. Available at: http://www.emdat.be/publications (accessed 9/9/10).
  84. Crielaard, J. P. (2006). Basileis at sea: Elites and external contacts in the Euboean Gulf region from the end of the Bronze Age to the beginning of the Iron Age. In Deger-Jalkotzy, S., and Lemos, I. S. (eds.), Ancient Greece from the Mycenaean Palaces to the Age of Homer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 271–297.Google Scholar
  85. Crumley, C. E. (2007). Historical ecology: Integrated thinking at multiple temporal and spatial scales. In Hornborg, A., and Crumley, C. L. (eds.), The World System and the Earth System: Global Socioenvironmental Change and Sustainability Since the Neolithic, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, pp. 15–28.Google Scholar
  86. Culbert, T. P. (ed.) (1973). The Classic Maya Collapse, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  87. Culbert, T. P. (1988). The collapse of Classic Maya civilization. In Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 69–101.Google Scholar
  88. Cullen, H. M., deMenocal, P. B., Hemming, S., Hemming, G., Brown, F. H., Guilderson, T., and Sirocko, F. (2000). Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea. Geology 28: 379–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Curtis, J. H., Brenner, M., and Hodell, D. A. (2001). Climate change in the circum-Caribbean (Later Pleistocene to present) and implications for regional biogeography. In Woods, C. A., and Sergile, F. E. (eds.), Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 35–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Day, D. (2008). Conquest: How Societies Overwhelm Others, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  91. Davis, J. L. (2008). Minoan Crete and the Aegean Islands. In Shelmerdine, C. W. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 186–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Deagan, K. (1996). Colonial transformation: Euro-American cultural genesis in the early Spanish-American colonies. Journal of Anthropological Research 52: 135–160.Google Scholar
  93. Dearing, J. A. (2006). Climate-human-environment interactions: Resolving our past. Climate of the Past Discussions 2: 563–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. De Boer, J. Z., and Sanders, D. T. (2002). Volcanoes in Human History: The Far Reaching Effects of Major Eruptions, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  95. Deger-Jalkotzy, S. (1996). On the negative aspects of the Mycenaean palatial system. In De Miro, E., Godart, L., and Sacconi, A. (eds.), Atti e memorie del secondo Congresso internazionale di micenologia, Roma-Napoli, 14-20 Ottobre 1991, 2: Storia (Incunabula Greca 98), Gruppo editoriale internazionale, Rome, pp. 715–728.Google Scholar
  96. Deger-Jalkotzy, S. (2006). Late Mycenaean warrior tombs. In Deger-Jalkotzy, S., and Lemos, I. S. (eds.), Ancient Greece from the Mycenaean Palaces to the Age of Homer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 151–180.Google Scholar
  97. Deger-Jalkotzy, S. (2008). Decline, destruction, aftermath. In Shelmerdine, C. W. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 387–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Demarest, A. A. (2001). Climatic change and the Maya collapse: The return of catastrophism. Latin American Antiquity 12: 105–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Demarest, A. A. (2004). Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  100. Demarest, A. A. (2006). The Petexbatun Regional Archaeological Project: A Multidisciplinary Study of the Maya Collapse, Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  101. Demarest, A. A., Rice, P. M., and Rice, D. S. (eds.) (2004a). Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition and Transformation, University Press of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  102. Demarest, A. A., Rice, P. M., and Rice, D. S. (2004b). The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Assessing collapses, terminations, and transformations. In Demarest, A. A., Rice, P. M., and Rice, D. S. (eds.), Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition and Transformation, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 545–572.Google Scholar
  103. deMenocal, P. B. (2001). Cultural responses to climate change during the Late Holocene. Science 292: 667–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. deMenocal, P. B., Demeritt, D., Hornborg, A., Kirch, P. V., McElreath, R., and Tainter, J. A. (2005). Perspectives on Diamond’s Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Current Anthropology 46 (Supplement): S91–S99.Google Scholar
  105. Denning, K. (1999). Apocalypse past/future: Archaeology and folklore, write large. In Gazin-Schwartz, A., and Holtorf, C. (eds.), Archaeology and Folklore, Routledge, London, pp. 90–105.Google Scholar
  106. Diamond, J. (1995). Easter’s end. Discover 9: 62–69.Google Scholar
  107. Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  108. Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Penguin, London.Google Scholar
  109. Diamond, J. (2010). Two views of collapse. Nature 463: 880–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Dickinson, O. T. (2006a). The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age: Continuity and Change Between the Twelfth and Eighth Centuries, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  111. Dickinson, O. T. (2006b). The Mycenaean heritage of Early Iron Age Greece. In Deger-Jalkotzy, S., and Lemos, I. S. (eds.), Ancient Greece from the Mycenaean Palaces to the Age of Homer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 115–122.Google Scholar
  112. Dickinson, O. T. (2010). The collapse at the end of the Bronze Age. In Cline, E. H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 483–490.Google Scholar
  113. Dickinson, O. T. (in press). Crete. In Renfrew, C., and Bahn, P. (eds.), Cambridge World Prehistory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  114. Dincauze, D. F. (2000). Environmental Archaeology: Principles and Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Drews, R. (1993). The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 BC, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  116. Drews, R. (2000). Medinet Habu: Oxcarts, ships and migration theories. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 59: 161–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Driessen, J. (2001). Crisis cults on Minoan Crete. In Laffineur, R., and Hagg, R. (eds.), Potnia: Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age, Aegaeum 22, University of Liège, Liège, pp. 361–369.Google Scholar
  118. Driessen, J., and Langohr, C. (2007). Rallying ‘round a “Minoan” past: The legitimation of power at Knossos during the Late Bronze Age. In Galaty, M. L., and Parkinson, W. A. (eds.), Rethinking Mycenaean Palaces II, 2nd ed., Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles, pp. 178–189.Google Scholar
  119. Driessen, J., and MacDonald, C. F. (1997). The Troubled Island. Minoan Crete Before and After the Santorini Eruption, Aegaeum 17, University of Liège, Liège.Google Scholar
  120. Driessen, J., and MacDonald, C. F. (2000). The eruption of the Santorini volcano and its effects on Minoan Crete. In McGuire, W. G., Griffiths, D. R., Hancock, P. L., and Stewart, I. S. (eds.), The Archaeology of Geological Catastrophes, Special Publications 171, Geological Society, London, pp. 81–93.Google Scholar
  121. Dunning, N. P., Beach, T., and Rue, D. (1997). The palaeoecology and ancient settlement of the Petexbatun reigion, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 8: 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Eder, B. (2006). The world of Telemachus: Western Greece 1200–700 BC. In Deger-Jalkotzy, S., and Lemos, I. S. (eds.), Ancient Greece from the Mycenaean Palaces to the Age of Homer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 549–579.Google Scholar
  123. Eder, B., and Jung, R. (2005). On the character of social relations between Greece and Italy in the 12th/11th century BC. In Laffineur, R., and Greco, E. (eds.), Emporia: Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean, Aegaeum 25, University of Liège, Liège, pp. 485–495.Google Scholar
  124. Eisenstadt, S. (1988). Beyond collapse. In Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 236–243.Google Scholar
  125. Erickson, C. L. (1992). Prehistoric landscape management in the Andean highlands: Raised field agriculture and its environmental impact. Population and Environment 13: 285–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Erickson, C. L. (1999). Neo-environmental determinism and agrarian ‘collapse’ in Andean prehistory. Antiquity 73: 634–642.Google Scholar
  127. E. U. (n.d.). Five thousand years of water works supporting diverse human societies. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/research/water-initiative/years_en.html (accessed 1/6/10).
  128. Evans, J. G. (2003). Environmental Archaeology and the Social Order, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  129. Fagan, B. (2004). The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization, Granta, London.Google Scholar
  130. Fagan, B. (2008). The Great Warming: Climate Change and the Rise and Fall of Civilizations, Bloomsbury, New York.Google Scholar
  131. Fagan, G. G. (2006). Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  132. Fash, W. L. (1994). Changing perspectives on Maya civilization. Annual Review of Anthropology 23: 181–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Fischer, S. R. (2005). Island at the End of the World: The Turbulent History of Easter Island, Reaktion Books, London.Google Scholar
  134. Fleming, J. R. (1998). Historical Perspectives on Climate Change, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  135. Flenley, J., and Bahn, P. (2003). The Enigmas of Easter Island, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  136. Francou, B., Vuille, M., Wagnon, P., Mendoza, J., and Sicart, J-E. (2003). Tropical climate change recorded by a glacier in the central Andes during the last decades of the twentieth century: Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 16° S. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 108: 4154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Fraser, E. D. (2009). Economic Crises, Land Use Vulnerabilities, Climate Variability, Food Security and Population Declines: Will History Repeat Itself or Will Our Society Adapt to Climate Change? Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 1. Available at: http://www.cccep.ac.uk/Publications/Working%20Papers/WorkingPapers.aspx (accessed 18/6/10).
  138. Freidel, D. (2008). Maya divine kingship. In Brisch, N. (ed.). Religion and Power: Divine Kingship in the Ancient World and Beyond, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, pp. 191–206.Google Scholar
  139. French, E. B. (1996). Evidence for an earthquake at Mycenae. In Stiros, S., and Jones, R. E. (eds.), Archaeoseismology, The British School at Athens and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Athens, pp. 51–54.Google Scholar
  140. French, E. B. (1998). The ups and downs of Mycenae: 1250–1150 BCE. In Gitin, S., Mazar, A., and Stern, E. (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE, Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem, pp. 2–5.Google Scholar
  141. French, E. B. (1999). The Post-palatial levels at Mycenae: An update. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 43: 222–223.Google Scholar
  142. French, E. B. (2002). Mycenae: Agamemnon’s Capital, Tempus, Stroud.Google Scholar
  143. French, E. B. (2009). The significance of changes in spatial usage at Mycenae. In Bachhuber, C., and Roberts, R. G. (eds.), Forces of Transformation: The End of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean, Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp. 108–110.Google Scholar
  144. Friedman, J. (2007). Sustainable unsustainability: Toward a comparative study of hegemonic decline in global systems. In Hornborg, A., and Crumley, C. L. (eds.), The World System and the Earth System: Global Socioenvironmental Change and Sustainability Since the Neolithic, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, pp. 91–108.Google Scholar
  145. Geller, M. J. (1997) The last wedge. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 87: 43–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Gill, R. B. (2000). The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  147. Gill, R. B., Mayewski, P. A., Nyberg, J., Haug, G. H., and Peterson, L. C. (2007). Drought and the Maya collapse. Ancient Mesoamerica 18: 283–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Glenn, J. C., and Gordon, T. J. (1998). State of the Future: Issues and Opportunities. American Council for the United Nations University, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  149. Glenn, J. C., Gordon, T. J., and Florescu, E. (2009). State of the Future. American Council for the United Nations University, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  150. Goldsworthy, A. (2009). How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  151. Gonzalez, S., Pastrana, A., Siebe, C., and Duller, G. (2000). Timing of the prehistoric eruption of Xitle volcano and the abandonment of Cuicuilco pyramid, southern Basin of Mexico. In McGuire, W. G., Griffiths, D. R., Hancock, P. L., and Stewart, I. S. (eds.), The Archaeology of Geological Catastrophes, Special Publications 171, Geological Society, London, pp. 205–224.Google Scholar
  152. Good, D. H., and Reuveny, R. (2009). On the collapse of historical civilizations. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 91: 863–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Goody, J. (2006). The Theft of History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  154. Gosden, C. (2004). Archaeology and Colonialism: Cultural Contact from 5000 BC to the Present, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  155. Gulløv, H. C. (2008). The nature of contact between native Greenlanders and Norse. Journal of the North Atlantic 1: 16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Hall, J. M. (1997). Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Hall, J. M. (2007). A History of the Archaic Greek World ca.1200–479 BCE, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  158. Hallager, E. (2010). Crete. In Cline, E. H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 149–159.Google Scholar
  159. Hallam, T. (2004). Catastrophes and Lesser Calamities: The Causes of Mass Extinctions, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  160. Hassan, F. A. (1999). Population dynamics. In Barker, G. (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Routledge, London, pp. 672–713.Google Scholar
  161. Hassan, F. A. (2002). Droughts, Food and Culture: Ecological Change and Food Security in Africa’s Later Prehistory, Kluwer, New York.Google Scholar
  162. Haug, G. H., Günther, D., Peterson, L. C., Sigman, D. M., Hughen, K. A., and Aeschlimann, B. (2003). Climate and the collapse of Maya civilization. Science 299: 1731–1735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Hawkins, J. D. (2009). Cilicia, the Amuq, and Aleppo: New light in a dark age. Near Eastern Archaeology 72: 164–172.Google Scholar
  164. Hayashida, F. M. (2005). Archaeology, ecological history, and conservation. Annual Review of Anthropology 34: 43–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Herman, A. (1997). The Idea of Decline in Western History, The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  166. Herodotus. (1996). The Histories, rev. ed. (trans. by de Selincourt, A., revised with introduction and notes by Marincola, J. M.), Penguin, London.Google Scholar
  167. Higham, N. (ed.) (2008). Britons in Anglo-Saxon England, Boydell and Brewer, Woodbridge, UK.Google Scholar
  168. Hodell, D. A., Curtis, J. H., and Brenner, M. (1995). Possible role of climate change in the collapse of Classic Maya civilization. Nature 375: 391–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Hodell, D. A., Curtis, J. H., Brenner, M., and Guilderson, T. (2001). Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya lowlands. Science 292: 1367–1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Hodell, D. A., Curtis, J. H., and Brenner, M. (2005). Terminal Classic drought in the northern Maya lowlands inferred from multiple sediment cores in Lake Chichancanab (Mexico). Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 1413–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Hodell, D. A., Brenner, M., and Curtis, J. H. (2007). Climate and cultural history of the northeastern Yucatan peninsula, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Climatic Change 83: 215–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Holling, C. S., and Gunderson, L. H. (2002). Resilience and adaptive cycles. In Gunderson, L. H., and Holling, C. S. (eds.), Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 25–62.Google Scholar
  174. Hornborg, A., and Crumley, C. L. (eds.) (2007). The World System and the Earth System: Global Socioenvironmental Change and Sustainability Since the Neolithic, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
  175. Houston, S. D., and Inomata, T. (2009). The Classic Maya, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  176. Houston, S. D., Baines, J., and Cooper, J. (2003). Last writing: Script obsolescence in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Mesoamerica. Comparative Studies in Society and History 45: 430–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Hunt, T. L. (2007). Rethinking Easter Island’s ecological catastrophe. Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Hunt, T. L., and Lipo, C. P. (2010). Ecological catastrophe, collapse, and the myth of ‘ecocide’ on Rapa Nui (Easter Island). In McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.), Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 21–44.Google Scholar
  179. Hunter-Anderson, R. L. (1998). Human vs climatic impacts at Rapa Nui: Did people really cut down all those trees? In Stevenson, C. M., Lee, G., and Morin, F. J. (eds.), Easter Island in Pacific Context: South Seas Symposium, Easter Island Foundation, Santa Barbara, CA, pp. 85–99.Google Scholar
  180. Huntington, E. (1915). Climatic change and agricultural exhaustion as elements in the fall of Rome. Quarterly Journal of Economics 31: 173–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Huntington, E. (1917). Civilization and Climate, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  182. Iacovou, M. (2008). Cultural and political configurations in Iron Age Cyprus: The sequel to a protohistoric episode. American Journal of Archaeology 112: 625–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Iakovides, S. (1970). Perati to Nekrotafeion, Archaeological Society, Athens.Google Scholar
  184. Iannone, G. (2005). The rise and fall of a Maya petty royal court. Latin American Antiquity 16: 26–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Ibn Khaldun (2005). The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, trans. by Rosenthal, F., edited and abridged by Dawood, N. J., new introduction by Lawrence, B. B., Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  186. Isaar, A. S., and Zohar, M. (2007). Climate Change: Environment and History of the Near East, 2nd ed., Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  187. Jacobsen, T., and Adams, R. McC. (1958). Salt and silt in ancient Mesopotamian agriculture. Science 128: 1251–1258.Google Scholar
  188. Janssen, M. A., and Scheffer, M. (2004). Overexploitation of renewable resources by ancient societies and the role of sunk-cost effects. Ecology and Society 9: article 6. Available at: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss1/art6 (accessed 9/9/10).
  189. Janusek, J. W. (2004). Collapse as cultural revolution: Power and identity in the Tiwanaku to Pacajes transition. In Vaughn, K. J., Ogburn, D. E., and Conlee, C. A. (eds), The Foundations of Power in the Prehispanic Andes, Archeological Papers No. 14, American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 175–209.Google Scholar
  190. Janusek, J. W. (2008). Ancient Tiwanaku, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  191. Jones, G. D. (1998). The Conquest of the Last Maya Kingdom, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  192. Joyce, A. A., Bustamente, L. A., and Levine, M. N. (2001). Commoner power: A case study from the Classic period collapse on the Oaxaca coast. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 8: 343–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Kealhofer, L., Grave, P., Genz, H., and Marsh, B. (2009). Post-collapse: The re-emergence of polity in Iron Age Bogazkoy, central Anatolia. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 28: 275–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Keller, J. (1980). Did the Santorini eruption destroy the Minoan world? Nature 287: 779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Kelly, G. (2004). Ammianus and the great tsunami. The Journal of Roman Studies 94: 141–167.Google Scholar
  196. Kennet, D. J., and Kennet, J. P. (2006). Early state formation in southern Mesopotamia: Sea levels, shorelines, and climate change. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 1: 67–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Kenoyer, J. M. (2005). Culture change during the late Harappan period at Harappa: New insights on Vedic Aryan issues. In Bryant, E. F., and Patton, L. L. (eds.), The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, Routledge, London, pp. 21–49.Google Scholar
  198. Kenoyer, J. M. (2006). Cultures and societies of the Indus tradition. In Thapar, R. (ed.), Historical Roots in the Making of ‘the Aryan,’ National Book Trust, New Delhi, pp. 21–49.Google Scholar
  199. Keys, D. (2000). Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World, Arrow, London.Google Scholar
  200. Khadkikar, A. S., Basavaiah, N., Gundurao, T. K., and Rajshekar, C. (2004). Palaeoenvironments around the Harappan port of Lothal, Gujurat, western India. Journal of the Indian Geophysical Union 8: 49–53.Google Scholar
  201. Kilian, K. (1996). Earthquakes and archaeological context. In Stiros, S., and Jones, R. E. (eds.), Archaeoseismology, The British School at Athens and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Athens, pp. 63–68.Google Scholar
  202. King, G., and Bailey, G. (2006). Tectonics and human evolution. Antiquity 80: 1–22.Google Scholar
  203. Kirch, P. V. (1997). Microcosmic histories: Island perspectives on “global change.” American Anthropologist 99: 30–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Kirch, P. V. (2005). Archaeology and global change: The Holocene record. Annual Review of Environmental Resources 30: 409–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Kirch, P. V., and Rallu, J. L. (eds.) (2007). The Growth and Collapse of Pacific Island Societies: Archaeological and Demographic Perspectives, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  206. Kohl, P. L. (2008). Shared social fields: Evolutionary convergence in prehistory and contemporary practice. American Anthropologist 110: 495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Kohler, T. A. (1992). Prehistoric human impact on the environment in the upland North American Southwest. Population and Environment 13: 255–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Kohler, T. A., and Matthews, M. H. (1988). Long-term Anasazi land use and forest reduction: A case study from southwest Colorado. American Antiquity 53: 537–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Kolata, A. L. (1993). The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization, Wiley-Blackwell, London.Google Scholar
  210. Kolata, A. L., and Ortloff, C. (1996). Agroecological perspectives on the decline of the Tiwanaku state. In Kolata, A. L. (ed.), Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 181–202.Google Scholar
  211. Kolata, A. L., Binford, M. W., Brenner, M., Janusek, J. W., and Ortloff, C. (2000). Environmental thresholds and the empirical reality of state collapse: A response to Erickson (1999). Antiquity 74: 424–426.Google Scholar
  212. Kramer-Hajos, M., and O’Neill, K. (2008). The Bronze Age site of Mitrou in East Lokris: Finds from the 1988–1989 surface survey. Hesperia 77: 163–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Kuniholm, P. I. (1990). Archaeological evidence and non-evidence for climatic change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 330: 645–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Kuzucuoglu, C., and Marro, C. (eds.) (2007). Human Societies and Climate Change at the End of the Third Millenium: Did a Crisis Take Place in Upper Mesopotamia? (Societes humaines et changement climatique a la fin du troisieme millenaire: Une crise a-t-elle eu lieu en haute Mesopotamie?), Institut Francais d’Etudes Anatoliennes Georges-Dumezil, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  215. Lahiri, N. (ed.) (2000). The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization, Permanent Black, Delhi.Google Scholar
  216. Lawler, A. (2008). Indus collapse: The end or beginning of an Asian culture? Science 320: 1281–1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Lawler, A. (2010). Collapse? What collapse? Societal change revisited. Science 330: 907–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Lemos, I. S. (2002). The Protogeometric Aegean, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  219. Lemos, I. S. (2010). Lefkandi: Out of the dark. Current World Archaeology 39: 18–27.Google Scholar
  220. Leroy, S. A. (2006). From natural hazard to environmental catastrophe: Past and present. Quaternary International 158: 4–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Leroy, S. A., Marco, S., Bookman, R., and Miller, C. S. (2010). Impact of earthquakes on agriculture during the Roman-Byzantine period from pollen records of the Dead Sea laminated sediment. Quaternary Research 73: 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Lewis, B. (1975). History: Remembered, Recovered, Invented, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  223. Lewis, K. (2010). Did they fail? Could they choose? Science 327: 413–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Lewis, M. E. (2007). The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  225. Lewit, T. (2003). ‘Vanishing villas’: What happened to elite rural habitation in the West in the 5th–6th c.? Journal of Roman Archaeology 16: 260–274.Google Scholar
  226. Lewit, T. (2009). Pigs, presses and pastoralism: Farming in the fifth to sixth centuries AD. Early Medieval Europe 17: 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Leyden, B. W., Brenner, M., and Dahlin, B. H. (1998). Cultural and climatic history of Cobá, a lowland Maya city in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Quaternary Research 49: 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Li, F. (2006). Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  229. Liebeschuetz, J. H. (2003). The Decline and Fall of the Roman City, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  230. Lincoln, C. E. (1989). Review of Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations [1988]. Journal of Field Archaeology 16: 461–467.Google Scholar
  231. Linden, E. (2007). The Winds of Change: Climate, Weather, and the Destruction of Civilizations, Simon and Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  232. Little, L. K. (ed.) (2007). Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541–750, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  233. Liverani, M. (2001). The fall of the Assyrian empire: Ancient and modern interpretations. In Alcock, S. E., D’Altroy, T. N., Morrison, K. D., and Sinopoli, C. M. (eds.), Empires, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 374–391.Google Scholar
  234. Loseby, S. T. (2000). Power and towns in late Roman Britain and early Anglo-Saxon England. In Ripoll, G., and Gurt, J. M. (eds.), Sedes Regiae (ann. 400–800), Reial Acadèmia de Bones Lletres, Barcelona, pp. 319–370.Google Scholar
  235. Lovell, W. G. (1994). Conquest and population: Maya demography in historical perspective. Latin American Research Review 29: 133–140.Google Scholar
  236. Lowe, P., Whitman, G., and Phillipson, J. (2009). Ecology and the social sciences. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 297–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Luce, J. V., and Bolton, K. (1976). Thera and the devastation of Minoan Crete: A new interpretation of the evidence. American Journal of Archaeology 80: 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Lucero, L. J. (2002). The collapse of the Classic Maya: A case for the role of water. American Anthropologist 104: 814–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Lynnerup, N. (1996). Palaeodemography of the Greenland Norse. Arctic Anthropology 33: 122–136.Google Scholar
  240. MacDonald, C. (2010). Knossos. In Cline, E. H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 529–542.Google Scholar
  241. Mackil, E. (2004). Wandering cities: Alternatives to catastrophe in the Greek polis. American Journal of Archaeology 108: 493–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. MacMillan, M. (2010). The Uses and Abuses of History, Profile Books, London.Google Scholar
  243. Madella, M., and Fuller, D. Q. (2006). Palaeoecology and the Harappan civilisation of South Asia: A reconsideration. Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 1283–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Maher, L. A., Banning, E. B., and Chazan, M. (2011). Oasis or mirage? Assessing the role of abrupt climate change in the prehistory of the southern Levant. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 21: 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Mann, D., Edwards, J., Chase, J., Beck, W., Reanier, R., Mass, M., Finney, B., and Loret, J. (2008). Drought, vegetation change, and human history on Rapa Nui (Isla de Pascua, Easter Island). Quaternary Research 69: 16–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Manning, S. W. (2006–2007). Why radiocarbon dating 1200 BCE is difficult: A sidelight on dating the end of the Late Bronze Age and the contrarian contribution. Scripta Mediterranea 27/28: 53–80.Google Scholar
  247. Manning, S. W. (2007). Clarifying the ‘high’ v. ‘low’ Aegean/Cypriot chronology for the mid second millennium BC: Assessing the evidence, interpretive frameworks, and current state of the debate. In Bietak, M., and Czerny, E. (eds.), The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium BC III, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, Vienna, pp. 101–138.Google Scholar
  248. Manning, S. W. (2008). Protopalatial Crete: Formation of the palaces. In Shelmerdine, C. W. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Manning, S. W. (2010). Eruption of Thera/Santorini. In Cline, E. H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 457–474.Google Scholar
  250. Manning, S. W., Ramsey, C. B., Kutschera, W., Higham, T., Kromer, B., Steier, P., and Wild, E. (2006). Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700–1400 BC. Science 312: 565–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Manzanilla, L. (1997). The impact of climatic change on past civilizations: A revisionist agenda for further investigation. Quaternary International 43/44: 153–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Maran, J. (2001). Political and religious aspects of architectural change on the Upper Citadel of Tiryns: The case of Building T. In Laffineur, R., and Hagg, R. (eds.), Potnia: Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age, Aegaeum 22, University of Liège, Liège, pp. 113–122.Google Scholar
  253. Maran, J. (2002). Tiryns town after the fall of the palace: Some new insights. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 46: 223–224.Google Scholar
  254. Maran, J. (2006). Coming to terms with the past: Ideology and power in Late Helladic IIIC. In Deger-Jalkotzy, S., and Lemos, I. S. (eds.), Ancient Greece from the Mycenaean Palaces to the Age of Homer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 123–150.Google Scholar
  255. Marcus, J. (1998). The peaks and valleys of ancient states: An extension of the dynamic model. In Feinman, G. M., and Marcus, J. (eds.), Archaic States, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 59–94.Google Scholar
  256. Marinatos, S. (1939). The volcanic destruction of Minoan Crete. Antiquity 13: 425–439.Google Scholar
  257. Masse, W. B., Barber, E. W., Piccardi, L., and Barber, P. T. (2007). Exploring the nature of myth and its role in science. In Piccardi, L., and Masse, W. B. (eds), Myth and Geology, Special Publications 273, Geological Society, London, pp. 9–28.Google Scholar
  258. Masson, M. A. (1997). Cultural transformation at the Maya Postclassic community of Laguna de On, Belize. Latin American Antiquity 8: 293–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Masson, M. A., and Mock, S. B. (2004). Ceramics and settlement patterns at Terminal Classic-period lagoon sites in northeastern Belize. In Demarest, A. A., Rice, P. M., and Rice, D. S. (eds.), The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition, and Transformation, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 367–401.Google Scholar
  260. Masson, M. A., Hare, T. S., and Peraza Lope, C. (2006). Postclassic Maya society regenerated at Mayapan. In Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 188–207.Google Scholar
  261. Matthews, R. (2004). Landscapes of terror and control: Imperial impacts in Paphlagonia. Near Eastern Archaeology 67: 200–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Mayewski, P. A., Rohling, E. E., Stager, J. C., Karlen, W., Maasch, K. A., Meeker, L. D., Meyerson, E. A., Gasse, F., van Krevald, S., Holmgren, K., Lee-Thorp, J., Rosqvist, G., Rack, F., Staubwasser, M., Schneider, R. R., and Steig, E. J. (2004). Holocene climate variability. Quaternary Research 62: 243–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. McAnany, P. A., and Negron, T. G. (2010). Bellicose rulers and climatological peril? Retrofitting twenty-first century woes on eighth century Maya society. In McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.), Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 142–175.Google Scholar
  264. McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.) (2010a). Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  265. McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (2010b). Why we question collapse. In McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.), Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  266. McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (2010c). Questioning how different societies respond to crises. Nature 464: 977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. McCoy, F. W., and Heiken, G. (2000). Tsunami generated by the Late Bronze Age eruption of Thera (Santorini), Greece. Pure and Applied Geophysics 157: 1227–1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. McEwan, G. F. (2006). Inca state origins: Collapse and regeneration in the southern Peruvian Andes. In Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 85–98.Google Scholar
  269. McGovern, T. H. (1991). Climate, correlation, and causation in Norse Greenland. Arctic Anthropology 28: 77–100.Google Scholar
  270. McGovern, T. H., Bigelow, G., Amorosi, T., and Russell, D. (1988). Northern islands, human error, and environmental degradation: A view of social and ecological change in the medieval North Atlantic. Human Ecology 16: 225–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. McGuire, R. H. (1992). Archeology and the first Americans. American Anthropologist 94: 816–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. McGuire, R. H., and Walker, M. (1999). Class confrontations in archaeology. Historical Archaeology 33(1): 159–183.Google Scholar
  273. McMenamin, D. (2006). Anglo-Indian experiences during partition and its impact upon their lives. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 8: 69–95.Google Scholar
  274. McNeil, C. L., Burney, D. A., and Burney, L. P. (2010). Evidence disputing deforestation as the cause for the collapse of the ancient Maya polity of Copan, Honduras. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 1017–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. McNeill, J. R. (2010). Sustainable survival. In McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.), Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 355–366.Google Scholar
  276. Michalowski, P. (2008). The mortal kings of Ur: A short century of divine rule in ancient Mesopotamia. In Brisch, N. (ed.), Religion and Power: Divine Kingship in the Ancient World and Beyond, Oriental Institute of Chicago, Chicago, pp. 33–45.Google Scholar
  277. Middleton, G. D. (2010). The Collapse of Palatial Society in Late Bronze Age Greece and the Postpalatial Period, BAR International Series 2110, Archaeopress, Oxford.Google Scholar
  278. Mieth, A., and Bork, H.-R. (2010). Humans, climate or introduced rats: Which is to blame for the woodland destruction on prehistoric Rapa Nui (Easter Island)? Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 417–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Milbraith, S., and Peraza Lope, C. (2003). Revisiting Mayapan: Mexico’s last Maya capital. Ancient Mesoamerica 14: 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Mills, B. J. (2002). Recent research on Chaco: Changing views on economy, ritual, ands society. Journal of Archaeological Research 10: 65–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Mills, B. J. (2004). Key debates in Chacoan archaeology. In Noble, D. G. (ed.), In Search of Chaco: New Approaches to an Archaeological Enigma, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 123–130.Google Scholar
  282. Milner, G. R. (1990). The Late Prehistoric Cahokia cultural system of the Mississippi River Valley: Foundations, florescence, and fragmentation. Journal of World Prehistory 4: 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Minoura, K., Imamura, F., Kuran, U., Nakamura, T., Papadopoulos, G. A., Takahashi, T., and Yalciner, A. C. (2000). The discovery of Minoan tsunami deposits. Geology 28: 59–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Mitchell, P. (2008). Practising archaeology at a time of climatic catastrophe. Antiquity 82: 1093–1103.Google Scholar
  285. Modelski, G. (2007). Ages of reorganization. In Hornborg, A., and Crumley, C. L. (eds.), The World System and the Earth System: Global Socioenvironmental Change and Sustainability since the Neolithic, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, pp. 180–194.Google Scholar
  286. Mommsen, T. E. (1942). Petrarch’s conception of the “dark ages.” Speculum 17: 226–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Monaco, C., and Tortorici, L. (2004). Faulting and effects of earthquakes on Minoan archaeological sites in Crete (Greece). Tectonophysics 382: 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Montazeri, A., Baradaran, H., Omidvari, S., Ali Azin, S., Ebadi, M., Garmaroudi, G., Haririchi, A. M., and Shariati, M. (2005). Psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors in Iran: A population based study. BMC Public Health 5: article 4, doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-4.
  289. Morris, E. (2006). “Lo, nobles lament, the poor rejoice”: State formation in the wake of social flux. In Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 58–71.Google Scholar
  290. Morris, I. (1997). Periodisation and the heroes: inventing a dark age. In Golden, M., and Toohey, P. (eds.), Inventing Ancient Culture: Historicism, Periodization, and the Ancient World, Routledge, London, pp. 96–131.Google Scholar
  291. Morris, I. (2006). The collapse and regeneration of complex society in Greece, 1500–500 BC. In Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 72–84.Google Scholar
  292. Motyl, A. J. (2001). Imperial Ends: The Decay, Collapse and Revival of Empires, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  293. Moyer, M. (2010). Eternal fascinations with the end. Scientific American 303: 38–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Nelson, M. C., Hegmon, M., Kulow, S., and Schollmeyer, K. G. (2006). Archaeological and ecological perspectives on reorganization: A case study from the Mimbres region of the US Southwest. American Antiquity 71: 403–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Neumann, J. (1993). Climatic changes in Europe and the Near East in the second millennium. Climatic Change 23: 231–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Neumann, J., and Parpola, S. (1987). Climatic change and the eleventh-tenth-century eclipse of Assyria and Babylonia. The Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46: 161–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Nissenbaum, A. (1994). Sodom, Gomorrah and the other lost cities of the Plain: A climatic perspective. Climatic Change 26: 435–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Nowicki, K. (2000). Defensible Sites in Crete c.1200–800 BC, Aegaeum 21, University of Liège, Liège.Google Scholar
  299. Nunn, P. D. (2000). Environmental catastrophe in the Pacific Islands around AD 1300. Geoarchaeology 15: 715–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Nunn, P. D., Hunter-Anderson, R., Carson, M. T., Thomas, F., Ulm, S., and Rowland, M. J. (2007). Times of plenty, times of less: Last-millennium societal disruption in the Pacific Basin. Human Ecology 35: 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Nur, A. (1998). The end of the Bronze Age by large earthquakes? In Peiser, B. J., Palmer, T., and Bailey, M. E. (eds.), Natural Catastrophes During Bronze Age Civilisations: Archaeological, Geological, Astronomical and Cultural Perspectives, BAR International Series 728, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 140–147.Google Scholar
  302. Nur, A., and Burgess, D. (2008). Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  303. Nur, A., and Cline, E. H. (2000). Poseidon’s horses: Plate tectonics and earthquake storms in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Oglesby, R. J., Sever, T. L., Saturno, W., Erickson, D. J., and Srikishen, J. (2010). Collapse of the Maya: Could deforestation have contributed? Journal of Geophysical Research 115: D12106, 1–10.Google Scholar
  305. Orlove, B. (2005). Human adaptation to climate change: A review of three historical cases and some general perspectives. Environmental Science and Policy 8: 589–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Owen, B. D. (2005). Distant colonies and explosive collapse: The two stages of the Tiwanaku diaspora in the Osmore drainage. Latin American Antiquity 16: 45–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Palka, J. W. (2009). Historical archaeology of indigenous culture change in Mesoamerica. Journal of Archaeological Research 17: 297–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Panagiotakopulu, E., Skidmore, P., and Buckland, P. (2007). Fossil insect evidence for the end of the Western Settlement in Norse Greenland. Naturewissenschaften 94: 300–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Parkinson, W. A., and Galaty, M. L. (eds.) (2009). Archaic State Interaction: The Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age, School for Advanced Research Press, Santa Fe, NM.Google Scholar
  310. Pauketat, T. R. (2004). Ancient Cahokia and the Mississippians, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  311. Paulson, A. (1976). Environment and empire: Climatic factors in prehistoric Andean culture change. World Archaeology 8: 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Peiser, B. (2005). From genocide to ecocide: The rape of Rapa Nui. Energy and Environment 16: 513–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Pendergast, D. M. (1993). The center and the edge: Archaeology in Belize, 1809–1992. Journal of World Prehistory 7: 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Piccardi, L., and Masse, B. (eds.) (2007). Myth and Geology, Special Publications 273, Geological Society, London.Google Scholar
  315. Pichler, H., and Schiering, W. (1977). The Thera eruption and Late Minoan-IB destructions on Crete. Nature 267: 819–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Plog, S. (2008). Ancient Peoples of the American Southwest, 2nd ed., Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  317. Pluciennik, M. (1999). Archaeological narratives and other ways of telling. Current Anthropology 40: 653–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Plunket, P., and Uruñuela, G. (2000). The archaeology of a plinian eruption of the Popocatepetl volcano. In McGuire, W. G., Griffiths, D. R., Hancock, P. L., and Stewart, I. S. (eds.), The Archaeology of Geological Catastrophes, Special Publications 171, Geological Society, London, pp. 195–203.Google Scholar
  319. Pohl, W. (ed.) (1997). Kingdoms of the Empire: The Integration of Barbarians in Late Antiquity, The Transformation of the Roman World, vol. 1, Leiden, Brill.Google Scholar
  320. Pollock, S. (1999). Ancient Mesopotamia: The Eden that Never Was, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  321. Ponting, C. (2007). A New Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of the Great Civilizations, rev. ed., Penguin, London.Google Scholar
  322. Popham, M. (1994). The collapse of Aegean civilization at the end of the Late Bronze Age. In Cunliffe, B. (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated Prehistory of Europe, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 277–303.Google Scholar
  323. Posnansky, A. (1945). Tihuanacu: The Cradle of American Man, J. J. Augustin, New York.Google Scholar
  324. Possehl, G. L. (1997). The transformation of the Indus civilization. Journal of World Prehistory 11: 425–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Possehl, G. L. (1998). Sociopolitical complexity without the state: The Indus civilization. In Feinman, G. M., and Marcus, J. (eds.), Archaic States, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 261–291.Google Scholar
  326. Powell, M. (1985). Salt, seed, and yields in Sumerian agriculture: A critique of the theory of progressive salinization. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 75: 7–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Preston, L. (2008). Late Minoan II to IIIB Crete. In Shelmerdine, C. W. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 310–326.Google Scholar
  328. Preucel, R. W., and Mrozowski, S. A. (eds.) (2010). Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: The New Pragmatism, 2nd ed., Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
  329. Pringle, H. (2009). A new look at the Mayas’ end. Science 324: 454–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Pyle, D. M. (1997). The global impact of the Minoan eruption of Santorini, Greece. Environmental Geology 30: 59–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Rainbird, P. (2002). A message for our future? The Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ecodisaster and Pacific island environments. World Archaeology 33: 436–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Ramsey, C. B., Dee, M. W., Rowland, J. M., Higham, T. F., Harris, S. A., Brock, F., Quiles, A., Wild, E. M., Marcus, E. S., and Shortland, A. J. (2010). Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt. Science 328: 1554–1557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Rappaport, R. A. (1977). Maladaptation in social systems. In Friedman, J., and Rolands, M. (eds.), Evolution in Social Systems, Duckworth, London, pp. 49–71.Google Scholar
  334. Redman, C. L. (1999). Human Impact on Ancient Environments, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  335. Redman, C. L. (2004). Environmental degradation and early Mesopotamian civilization. In Redman, C. L., James, S. R., Fish, P. R., and Rogers, J. D. (eds.), The Archaeology of Global Change: The Impact of Humans on Their Environment, Smithsonian Books, Washington, DC, pp. 158–164.Google Scholar
  336. Redman, C. L. (2005). Resilience theory in archaeology. American Anthropologist 107: 70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Redman, C. L., James, S. R., Fish, P. R., and Rogers, J. D. (eds.) (2004). The Archaeology of Global Change: The Impact of Humans on Their Environment, Smithsonian Books, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  338. Rempel, J., and Yoffee, N. (1999). The end of the cycle? Assessing the impact of Hellenization on Mesopotamian civilization. In Bock, B., Cancik-Kirschbaum, E., and Richter, T. (eds.), Munuscula Mesopotamica: Festschrift fur Johannes Renger, Ugarit-Verlag, Munster, pp. 385–398.Google Scholar
  339. Ren, A. C. (2006). Maya archaeology and the political and cultural identity of contemporary Maya in Guatemala. Archaeologies 2: 8–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Reycraft, M. R., and Bawden, G. (2000). Introduction. In Bawden, G., and Reycraft, R. M. (eds.), Environmental Disaster and the Archaeology of Human Response, Anthropological Papers No. 7, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  341. Richer, P. J., Boyd, R., and Bettinger, R. L. (2001). Was agriculture impossible during the Pleistocene but mandatory during the Holocene? A climate change hypothesis. American Antiquity 66: 387–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Roberts, N., Eastwood, W. J., Kuzucuoglu, C., Fiorentino, G., and Caracuta, V. (2011). Climatic, vegetation, and cultural change in the eastern Mediterranean during the mid-Holocene environmental transition. The Holocene 21: 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Robertson, P. (2010). A catastrophic collapse. Currents 20: 22–28.Google Scholar
  344. Rose, M. (1999). Godzilla’s attacking Babylon! Archaeology. Available at: http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/godzilla/ (accessed 18/6/10).
  345. Rubertone, P. E. (2000). The historical archaeology of Native Americans. Annual Review of Anthropology 29: 425–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Rull, V., Cañellas-Boltà, N., Sáez, A., Giralt, S., Pla, S., and Margalef, O. (2010). Palaeoecology of Easter Island: Evidence and uncertainties. Earth Science Reviews 99: 50–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Runnels, C. N. (1995). Environmental degradation in ancient Greece. Scientific American 272: 96–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Runnels, C. N. (2000). Anthropogenic soil erosion in prehistoric Greece: The contribution of regional surveys to the archaeology of environmental disruptions and human response. In Bawden, G., and Reycraft, R. M. (eds.), Environmental Disaster and the Archaeology of Human Response, Anthropological Papers No. 7, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 11–20.Google Scholar
  349. Rutter, J. B. (1992). Cultural novelties in the post-palatial Aegean world: Indices of vitality or decline? In Ward, W. A., and Joukowsky, M. S. (eds.), The Crisis Years: The 12th Century BC: From Beyond the Danube to the Tigris, Kendall/Hunt Publishing, Dubuque, IA, pp. 61–78.Google Scholar
  350. Rystedt, E. (1999). No words, only pictures: Iconography in the transition between the Bronze and Iron Age in Greece. Opuscula Atheniensia 24: 89–98.Google Scholar
  351. Sanderson, S. K. (2005). Revolutions: A Worldwide Introduction to Political and Social Change, Paradigm, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  352. Santley, R. S., Nelson, S. A., Reinhardt, B. K., Pool, C. A., and Arnold, P. J. (2000). When day turned to night: Volcanism and the archaeological record from the Tuxtla Mountains, southern Veracruz, Mexico. In Bawden, G., and Reycraft, R. M. (eds.), Environmental Disaster and the Archaeology of Human Response, Anthropological Papers No. 7, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 143–162.Google Scholar
  353. Sarris, P. (2009). Introduction: Aristocrats, peasants, and the transformation of rural society, c. 400–800. Journal of Agrarian Change 9: 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Saunders, N. (2000). Blown away. New Scientist 165: 48.Google Scholar
  355. Scarborough, V. (2007). The rise and fall of the ancient Maya: A case study in political ecology. In Costanza, R., Graumlich, L. J., and Steffen, W. (eds.), Sustainability or Collapse? An Integrated History and Future of People on Earth, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 51–60.Google Scholar
  356. Scarborough, V. (2009). The archaeology of sustainability: Mesoamerica. Ancient Mesoamerica 20: 197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Schaeffer, C. F. (1948). Stratigraphie compare é et chronologie de l’Asie Occidentale, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  358. Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J. A., Folkes, C., and Walker, B. (2001). Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413: 591–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Schiettecatte, J. (2010). Why did the cities of the Jawf Valley collapse ? An archaeo-geographical approach. In Alarashi, H., Chambrade, M.-L., Gondet, S., Jouvenel, A., Sauvage, C., and Tronchère, H. (eds.), Regards croisés sur l’étude archéologique des paysages anciens: nouvelles recherches dans le Bassin méditerranéen, en Asie centrale et au Proche et au Moyen-Orient, Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée 56, Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux, Lyon, pp. 149–161.Google Scholar
  360. Schoep, I. (2010). Crete. In Cline, E. H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 113–125.Google Scholar
  361. Schwartz, G. M. (2006). From collapse to regeneration. In Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  362. Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.) (2006). After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  363. Shaughnessy, E. L. (1999). Western Zhou history. In Loewe, M., and Shaughnessy, E. L. (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History of China, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 292–351.Google Scholar
  364. Shaw, B., Ambraseys, N. N., England, P. C., Floyd, M. A., Gorman, G. J., Higham, T. F., Jackson, J. A., Nocquet, J.-M., Pain, C. C., and Piggott, M. D. (2008). Eastern Mediterranean tectonics and tsunami hazard inferred from the AD 365 earthquake. Nature Geoscience 1: 268–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Shelmerdine, C. W. (2001). The Palatial Bronze Age of the southern and central Greek mainland. In Cullen, T. (ed.), Aegean Prehistory: A Review, Archaeological Institute of America, Boston, pp. 329–381.Google Scholar
  366. Sherratt, E. S. (1990) “Reading the texts”: Archaeology and the Homeric question. Antiquity 64: 807–824.Google Scholar
  367. Sherratt, E. S. (2001). Potemkin palaces and route-based economies. In Voutsaki, S., and Killen, J. (eds.), Economy and Politics in the Mycenaean Palace States, Cambridge Philological Society, Cambridge, pp. 214–238.Google Scholar
  368. Sherratt, E. S. (2003). The Mediterranean economy: ‘Globalization’ at the end of the second millennium BCE. In Dever, W. G., and Gitin, S. (eds.), Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past: Canaan, Ancient Israel, and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age through Roman Palaestina, Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, WI, pp. 37–62.Google Scholar
  369. Sherratt, E. S. (2006). LH IIIC Lefkandi: An overview. In Evely, D. (ed.), Lefkandi IV The Bronze Age: The Late Helladic IIIC Settlement at Xeropolis, The British School at Athens, London, pp. 303–309.Google Scholar
  370. Shimada, I., Schaaf, C. B., Thompson, L. G., and Mosley-Thompson, E. (1991). Cultural impacts of severe droughts in the prehistoric Andes: Application of a 1,500 years ice core precipitation record. World Archaeology 22: 247–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Silberman, N. A. (1998). The Sea Peoples, the Victorians, and us: Modern social ideology and changing interpretations of the Late Bronze Age collapse. In Gitin, S., Mazar, A., and Stern, E. (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE, Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem, pp. 268–275.Google Scholar
  372. Silliman, S. W. (2005). Culture contact or colonialism? Challenges in the archaeology of native North America. American Antiquity 70: 55–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Sims, K. (2006). After state collapse: How Tumilaca communities developed in the upper Moquega Valley, Peru. In Schwartz, G. M., and Nichols, J. J. (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 114–136.Google Scholar
  374. Sinopoli, C. M. (1994). The archaeology of empires. Annual Review of Anthropology 23: 159–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Siverstein, B. J. (2009). The Parting of the Sea: How Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Plagues Shaped the Story of Exodus, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  376. Smith, M. L. (2006). The archaeology of South Asian cities. Journal of Archaeological Research 14: 97–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Staubwasser, M., and Weiss, H. (2006). Holocene climate and cultural evolution in late prehistoric-early historic west Asia. Quaternary Research 66: 372–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Stewart, I. (2008). Review of Nur, A., and Burgess, D., Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God [2008]. Times Higher Education Supplement. Available at: http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=402835&sectioncode=26 (accessed 11/6/10).
  379. Stiebing, W. H. (1980). The end of the Mycenean Age. The Biblical Archaeologist 43: 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Stiros, S. C. (2001). The AD 365 earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the eastern Mediterranean: A review of historical and archaeological data. Journal of Structural Geology 23: 545–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Stiros, S. C. (2009). Review of Nur, A., and Burgess, D., Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God [2008]. The Classical Review 59: 572–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Stiros, S. C., and Jones, R. E. (eds.) (1996). Archaeoseismology, The British School at Athens and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Athens.Google Scholar
  383. Stone, E. C. (2002). The Ur III-Old Babylonian transition: An archaeological perspective. Iraq 64: 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Suhler, C., Ardren, T., Freidel, D., and Johnstone, D. (2004). The rise and fall of terminal classic Yaxuna, Yucatan, Mexico. In Demarest, A. A., Rice, P. M., and Rice, D. S. (eds.), Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition and Transformation, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 450–484.Google Scholar
  385. Svensen, H. (2009). The End is Nigh: A History of Natural Disasters, Reaktion Books, London.Google Scholar
  386. Tainter, J. A. (1988). The Collapse of Complex Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  387. Tainter, J. A. (1999). Post-collapse societies. In Barker, G. (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Routledge, London, pp. 988–1039.Google Scholar
  388. Tainter, J. A. (2006a). Archaeology of overshoot and collapse. Annual Review of Anthropology. 35: 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Tainter, J. A. (2006b). Social complexity and sustainability. Ecological Complexity. 3: 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Tainter, J. A. (2008). Collapse, sustainability, and the environment: How authors choose to fail or succeed. Reviews in Anthropology 37: 342–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Tainter, J. A. (2010). Review of McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.), Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire [2010]. Human Ecology 38: 709–710.Google Scholar
  392. Tartaron, T. F. (2010). Between and beyond: Political economy in non-palatial Mycenaean worlds. In Pullen, D. (ed.), Political Economies of the Aegean Bronze Age, Papers from the Langford Conference, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 22–24 February 2007, Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp. 161–183.Google Scholar
  393. The Millennium Project (1997). The third round questionnaire for the historical panel. Available at: http://www.millennium-project.org/millennium/loh-rd3.html (accessed 22/8/10).
  394. Thomatos, M. (2006). The Final Revival of the Aegean Bronze Age: A Case Study of the Argolid, Corinthia, Attica, Euboea, the Cyclades and the Dodecanese during LH IIIC Middle, Archaeopress, Oxford.Google Scholar
  395. Thompson, L. G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Bolzan, J. F., and Koci, B. R. (1985). A 1500-year record of tropical precipitation in ice cores from the Quelccaya ice cap, Peru. Science 229: 971–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Thompson, T. J. (2005). Ancient stateless civilization: Bronze Age India and the state in history. The Independent Review 10: 365–384.Google Scholar
  397. Thompson, W. R. (2004). Complexity, diminishing marginal returns, and serial Mesopotamian fragmentation. Journal of World Systems Research 10: 613–652.Google Scholar
  398. Thornton, R. (1997). Aboriginal North American population and rates of decline, ca. AD 1500–1900. Current Anthropology 38: 310–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Tomkins, P., and Shoep, I. (2010). Crete. In Cline, E. H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 66–82.Google Scholar
  400. Town, M. S., Warren, S. G., Walde, V. P., and Waddington, E. D. (2008). Effect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice sheets. Journal of Geophysical Research D 113: D24303, doi: 10.1029/2008JD009852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Trigger, B. G. (1989). A History of Archaeological Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  402. Tsonis, A. A., Swanson, K. L., Sugihara, G., and Tsonia, P. A. (2010). Climate change and the demise of the Minoan civilization. Climate of the Past 6: 525–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Turchin, P. (2006). War and Peace and War: The Rise and Fall of Empires, Plume, New York.Google Scholar
  404. Ur, J. A. (2010). Cycles of civilization in northern Mesopotamia. Journal of Archaeological Research 18: 387–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Van De Mieroop, M. (2007). A History of the Ancient Near East: Ca. 3000–323 BC, 2nd ed., Blackwell, London.Google Scholar
  406. Van De Mieroop, M. (2010). The Eastern Mediterranean in the Age of Ramesses II, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
  407. Van De Moortel, A., and Zahou, E. (2005). 2004 excavations at Mitrou, East Lokris. Aegean Archaeology 7: 39–48.Google Scholar
  408. Van Dommelen, P. (1997). Colonial constructs: Colonialism and archaeology in the Mediterranean. World Archaeology 28: 305–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Van Engelsdorp, D., Evans, J. D., Saergerman, C., Mullin, C., Haubruge, E., Nguyen, B. K., Frazier, J., Cox-Foster, D., Chen, Y., Underwood, R., Tarpy, D. R., and Pettis, J. S. (2009). Colony collapse disorder: A descriptive study. Public Library of Science One 4: e6481.Google Scholar
  410. Vince, G. (2009). Surviving in a warmer world. New Scientist 201: 29–33.Google Scholar
  411. Vuille, M., Bradley, R. S., Werner, M., and Keimig, F. (2003). 20th century climate change in the tropical Andes: Observations and model results. Climate Change 59: 75–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Wallace, S. (2006). The gilded cage? Settlement and socioeconomic change after 1200 BC : A comparison of Crete and other Aegean regions. In Deger-Jalkotzy, S., and Lemos, I. S. (eds.), Ancient Greece from the Mycenaean Palaces to the Age of Homer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 619–664.Google Scholar
  413. Wallace, S. (2010). Ancient Crete: From Succesful Collapse to Democracy’s Alternatives, Twelfth to Fifth Centuries BC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  414. Walløe, L. (1999). Was the disruption of the Mycenaean world caused by repeated epidemics of bubonic plague? Opuscula Atheniensis 24: 121–126.Google Scholar
  415. Ward-Perkins, B. (2005). The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  416. Washington-Allen, R. A., Briske, D. D., Shugart, H. H., and Salo,. L. F. (2009). Introduction to special feature on catastrophic thresholds, perspectives, definitions, and applications. Ecology and Society 15: 38.Google Scholar
  417. Webster, D. (2002). The Fall of the Ancient Maya: Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  418. Webster D. (2006). The mystique of the ancient Maya. In Fagan, G. G. (ed.), Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public, Routledge, London, pp. 129–153.Google Scholar
  419. Weiss, H. (1996). Desert storm. The Sciences 36(3): 30–36.Google Scholar
  420. Weiss, H. (1997). Late third millennium abrupt climate change and social collapse in west Asia and Egypt. In Dalfes, H. N., Kukla, G., and Weiss, H. (eds.), Third Millenium BC Climate Change and Old World Collapse, NATO ASI, Series I, Global Environmental Change, Vol. 49, Springer, Berlin, pp. 711–723.Google Scholar
  421. Weiss, H. (2000). Beyond the Younger Dryas: Collapse as adaptation to abrupt climate change in ancient west Asia and the eastern Mediterranean. In Bawden, G., and Reycraft, R. M. (eds.), Environmental Disaster and the Archaeology of Human Response, Anthropological Papers No. 7, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 75–98.Google Scholar
  422. Weiss, H., and Bradley, R. S. (2001). What drives societal collapse? Science 291: 609–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Weiss, H., and Courty, M.-A. (1993). The genesis and collapse of the Akkadian empire: The accidental refraction of historical law. In Liverani, M. (ed.), Akkad: The First World Empire, Sargon, Padova, Italy, pp. 131–156.Google Scholar
  424. Weiss, H., Courty, M.-A., Wetterstrom, W., Guichard, F., Senior, L., Meadow, R., and Curnow, A. (1993). The genesis and collapse of third millennium north Mesopotamian civilization. Science 261: 995–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Wells, B., Runnels, C., and Zangger, E. (1993). In the shadow of Mycenae. Archaeology 46: 54–58.Google Scholar
  426. Whitby, M. (2000). Review of Keys, D., Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World [1999]. The Classical Review 50: 350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Wickham, C. (2009). The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000, Allen Lane, London.Google Scholar
  428. Wilcox, M. (2010). Marketing conquest and the vanishing Indian: An indigenous response to Jared Diamond’s archaeology of the American southwest. In McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.), Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 113–141.Google Scholar
  429. Wilk, R. R. (1985). The ancient Maya and the political present. Journal of Anthropological Research 41: 307–326.Google Scholar
  430. Williams, M. (2000). Dark ages and dark areas: Deforestation in the deep past. Journal of Historical Geography 26: 28–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Williams, R. P. (2002). Rethinking disaster-induced collapse in the demise of the Andean highland states: Wari and Tiwanaku. World Archaeology 33: 361–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Wills, W.H. (2009). Cultural identity and the archaeological construction of historical narratives: An example from Chaco Canyon. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 16: 283–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Wood, M. (1998). The use of the Pharaonic past in modern Egyptian nationalism. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 35: 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Wossink, A. (2010). Climate, history, and demography: A case study from the Balikh Valley, Syria. In Alarashi, H., Chambrade, M.-L., Gondet, S., Jouvenel, A., Sauvage, C., and Tronchère, H. (eds.), Regards croisés sur l’étude archéologique des paysages anciens: nouvelles recherches dans le Bassin méditerranéen, en Asie centrale et au Proche et au Moyen-Orient, Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée 56, Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux, Lyon, pp. 181–192.Google Scholar
  435. Wright, H. E. (1993). Environmental determinism in Near Eastern prehistory. Current Anthropology 34: 458–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Wright, L. E., and White, C. D. (1996). Human biology in the classic Maya collapse: Evidence from paleopathology and paleodiet. Journal of World Prehistory 10: 147–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. Wright, R. P. (2010). The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  438. Yasur-Landau, A. (2010). The Philistines and Aegean Migration at the End of the Late Bronze Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Yoffee, N. (1988a). Orienting collapse. In Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  440. Yoffee, N. (1988b). The collapse of ancient Mesopotamian states and civilization. Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 44–68.Google Scholar
  441. Yoffee, N. (2004). Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States, and Civilizations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  442. Yoffee, N. (2010). Collapse in ancient Mesopotamia: What happened, what didn’t. In McAnany, P. A., and Yoffee, N. (eds.), Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 176–203.Google Scholar
  443. Zettler, R. L. (2003). Reconstructing the world of ancient Mesopotamia: Divided beginnings and holistic history. Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 46: 3–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Zhang, D. D., Jim, C. Y., Lin, G. C., He, Y.-Q., and Lee, F. (2005). Climate change, social unrest and dynastic transition in ancient China. China Science Bulletin 50: 137–144.Google Scholar
  445. Zhang, D. D., Jim, C. Y., Lin, G. C., He, Y.-Q., Wang, J. J., and Lee, H. F. (2006). Climatic change, wars and dynastic cycles in China over the last millennium. Climatic Change 76: 459–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Zhang, D. D., Brecke, P., Lee, H. F., He, Y.-Q., and Zhang, J. (2007a). Global climate change, war, and population decline in recent human history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 19214–19219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Zhang, D. D., Zhang, J., Lee, H. F., and He, Y.-Q. (2007b). Climate change and war frequency in eastern China over the last millennium. Human Ecology 35: 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Zovar, J. M. (2007). Contact, conflict, trade and migration: Interregional interaction in the Andean Late Intermediate Period (1150–1450). Buletinul Cercurilor Stiintifice Studentesti, Arheologie – Istorie – Muzeologie 13: 65–78.Google Scholar

Bibliography of recent literature

  1. Adams, R. E. (1973). The collapse of Maya civilization: A review of previous theories. In Culbert, T. P. (ed.), The Classic Maya Collapse, University of New Mexico Press, Alberquerque, pp. 21–34.Google Scholar
  2. Amesbury, M. J., Charman, D. J., Fyfe, R. M., Langdon, P. G., and West, S. (2008). Bronze Age upland settlement decline in southwest England: Testing the climate change hypothesis. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrett, J. H. (2003). Contact, Continuity, and Collapse: The Norse Colonization of the North Atlantic, Brepols, Turnhout, Belgium.Google Scholar
  4. Bawden, G. (1995). Moche culture as political ideology. Latin American Antiquity 6: 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benson, L. V. (2010). Who provided maize to Chaco Canyon after the mid-12th century drought? Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 621–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson, L. V., Cordell, L., Vincent, K., Taylor, H., Stein, J., Farmer, G. L., and Futa, K. (2003). Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100: 13111–13115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beramendi-Orosco, L. E., Gonzalez-Hernandez, G., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., Manzanilla, L. R., Soler-Arechalde, A. M., Goguitchaishvili, A., and Jarboe, N. (2009). High-resolution chronology for the Mesoamerican urban center of Teotihuacan derived from Bayesian statistics or radiocarbon and archaeological data. Quaternary Research 71: 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanton, R. E. (1990). Review of Tainter, J. A., The Collapse of Complex Societies. American Antiquity 55: 421–423.Google Scholar
  9. Bowersock, G. W. (1991). Review of Tainter, J. A., The Collapse of Complex Societies. Journal of Field Archaeology 18: 119–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bryson, R. A., Lamb, H. H., and Donley, D. R. (1974). Drought and the decline of Mycenae. Antiquity 48: 46–50.Google Scholar
  11. Buhaug, H. (2010). Climate not to blame for African civil wars. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 16477–16482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burke, M. B., Miguel, E., Satyanath, S., Dykema, J. A., and Lobell, D. B. (2009). Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 20670–20674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caldararo, N. (2004). Sustainability, Human Ecology, and the Collapse of Complex Societies: Economic Anthropology and a 21st Century Adaptation, Edward Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY.Google Scholar
  14. Carpenter, R. (1966). Discontinuity in Greek Civilization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. Carruthers, J. (2006). Mapungubwe: An historical and contemporary analysis of a World Heritage cultural landscape. Koedoe 49: 1–13.Google Scholar
  16. Cook, E. R., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Stahle, D. W. (2007). North American drought: Reconstructions, causes and consequences. Earth Science Reviews 81: 93–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cook, E. R., Seager, R., Heim, R. R., Vose, R. S., Herweijer, C., and Woodhouse, C. (2010). Megadroughts in North America: Placing the IPCC projections of hydroclimatic change in a long-term palaeoclimatic context. Journal of Quaternary Science 25: 48–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cowgill, G. L. (2008). An update on Teotihuacan. Antiquity 82: 962–975.Google Scholar
  19. Deger-Jalkotzy, S., and Zavadil, M. (eds.) (2003). LH IIIC Chronology and Synchronisms, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, Vienna.Google Scholar
  20. Demandt, A. (1984). Der Fall Roms: Die Auflösung des römischen Reiches im Urteil der Nachwelt, Beck, Munich.Google Scholar
  21. Dickinson, O. T. (1974). ‘Drought and the decline of Mycenae’: Some comments. Antiquity 48: 228–230.Google Scholar
  22. Erdkamp, P. (ed.) (2007). A Companion to the Roman Army, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. Fagan, B. (2000). The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300–1850, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Fan, K.-W. (2010). Climatic change and dynastic cycles in Chinese history: A review. Climatic Change 101: 565–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fischer, B., Genz, H., Jean, E., and Köroglu, K. (eds.) (2003). Identifying Changes: The Transition from Bronze to Iron Ages in Anatolia and Its Neighbouring Regions, Türk Eskiçag Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  26. Fuchs, C. (2003). Some implications of Pierre Bourdieu’s works for a theory of social self-organization. European Journal of Social Theory 6: 387–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gamble, L. H. (2005). Culture and climate: Reconsidering the effect of palaeoclimatic variability among southern Californian hunter-gather societies. World Archaeology 37: 92–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gunn, J., and Adams, R. E. (1981). Climatic change, culture and civilization in North America. World Archaeology 13: 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harmansah, O. (2011). Moving landscapes, making place: Cities, monuments and commemoration at Malizi/Melid. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 24: 55–83.Google Scholar
  30. Hawkins, J. D. (1995). Karkamish and Karatepe: Neo-Hittite city-states in north Syria. In Sasson, J. (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Hendrickson, Peabody, MA, pp. 1295–1307.Google Scholar
  31. Hawkins, J. D. (2002). Anatolia: The end of the Hittite empire and after. In Braun-Holzinger, E. A., and Matthäus, H. (eds.), Die nahöstlichen Kulturen und Griechenland an der Wende vom 2. zum 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Kontinuität und Wandel von Strukturen und Mechanismen kultureller Interaktion, Bibliopolis, Möhnesee, Germany, pp. 144–151.Google Scholar
  32. Heather, P. (2005). The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History, Pan Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  33. Huffman, T. N. (2008). Climate change during the Iron Age in the Shashe-Limpopo Basin, southern Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2032–2047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Huffman, T. N. (2009). Mapungubwe and Zimbabwe: The origin and spread of social complexity in southern Africa. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28: 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Janssen, M. A., Kohler, T. A., and Scheffer, M. (2003). Sunk-cost effects and vulnerability to collapse in ancient societies. Current Anthropology 44: 722–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnston, K. T., Breckenridge, A. J., and Hansen, B. C. (2001). Paleoecological evidence of an early Postclassic occupation in the southwestern Maya lowlands: Laguna las Pozas, Guatemala. Latin American Antiquity 12: 149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones, T. L., Brown, G. M., Raab, L. M., McVickar, J. L., Spaulding, W. G., Kennett, D. J., York, A., and Walker, P. L. (2004). Environmental imperatives reconsidered: Demographic crises in western North America during the medieval climatic anomaly. In Raab, L. M., and Jones, T. L. (eds.), Prehistoric California: Archaeology and the Myth of Paradise, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp. 12–32.Google Scholar
  38. Kagan, D. (ed.) (1992). The End of the Roman Empire, 3rd ed., D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA.Google Scholar
  39. Kantner, J. (2004). Ancient Puebloan Southwest, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  40. Kenoyer, J. M. (1991). The Indus Valley tradition of Pakistan and western India. Journal of World Prehistory 5: 331–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kenoyer, J. M. (1998). Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan.Google Scholar
  42. Kerr, R. A. (1998). Sea-floor dust shows drought felled Akkadian empire. Science 279: 325–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kim, N. C., and Kusimba, C. M. (2008). Pathways to social complexity and state formation in the southern Zambezian region. African Archaeology Review 25: 131–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Knapp, A. B. (2008). Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus: Identity, Insularity and Connectivity, Oxford University Press, Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Larson, D. O., Neff, H., Graybill, D. A., Michaelson, J., and Ambos, E. (1996). Risk, climatic variability, and the study of southwestern prehistory: An evolutionary perspective. American Antiquity 61: 217–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marcone, A. (2008). A long late antiquity? Considerations on a controversial periodization. Journal of Late Antiquity 1: 4–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Miles, R. (2010). Carthage Must be Destroyed: The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization, Allen Lane, London.Google Scholar
  48. Millar, F. (1968). Local cultures in the Roman Empire: Libyan, Punic and Latin in Roman Africa. Journal of Roman Studies 58: 126–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller, D. (1985). Ideology and the Harappan civilization. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 4: 34–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Millon, R. (1988). The last years of Teotihuacan dominance. In Yoffee, N., and Cowgill, G. L. (eds.), Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 102–164.Google Scholar
  51. Misra, V. N. (1984). Climate, a factor in the rise and fall of the Indus civilization: Evidence from Rajasthan and beyond. In Lal, B. B., and Gupta, S. P. (eds.), Frontiers of the Indus Civilization, Books and Books, Delhi, pp. 461–489.Google Scholar
  52. Mitchell, P. (2002). The Archaeology of Southern Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  53. Mughal, M. R. (1990). The decline of the Indus civilization and the Late Harappan period in the Indus Valley. Lahore Museum Journal 3: 1–22.Google Scholar
  54. Myers, E. (1989). Review of Tainter, J. A., The Collapse of Complex Society [1988], Yoffee, N., and Cowgill G. L. (eds.), The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations [1988]. American Anthropologist 91: 1065–1066.Google Scholar
  55. O’Connor, T. G., and Kiker, G. A. (2004). Collapse of the Mapungubwe society: Vulnerability of pastoralism to increasing aridity. Climatic Change 66: 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Page, S. E. (2005). Are we collapsing? A review of Jared Diamond’s Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Journal of Economic Literature 43: 1049–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pauketat, T. R., and Emerson, T. E. (eds.) (1997). Cahokia: Domination and Ideology in the Mississippian World, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  58. Peiser, B. (2003). Climate change and civilizational collapse. In Okonski, K. (ed.), Adapt or Die: The Science, Politics and Economics of Climate Change, Profile Books, London, pp. 191–204.Google Scholar
  59. Pikirayi, I. (2001). The Zimbabwe Culture: Origins and Decline of Southern Zambezian States. AltaMira, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
  60. Possehl, G. L. (2000). The drying up of the Sarasvati: Environmental disruption in South Asian prehistory. In Bawden, G., and Reycraft, R. M. (eds.), Environmental Disaster and the Archaeology of Human Response, Anthropological Papers No. 7, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 63–74.Google Scholar
  61. Possehl, G. L. (2002). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
  62. Rehak, P., and Younger, J. G. (2001). Neopalatial, final palatial and postpalatial Crete. In Cullen, T. (ed.), Aegean Prehistory: A Review, Archaeological Institute of America, Boston, pp. 383–473.Google Scholar
  63. Richard, S. (1987). Archaeological sources for the history of Palestine: The Early Bronze Age: The rise and collapse of urbanism. The Biblical Archaeologist 50: 22–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rogers, A., and Hingley, R. (2010). Edward Gibbon and Francis Haverfield: The traditions of imperial decline. In Bradley, M. (ed.), Classics and Imperialism in the British Empire, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 189–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rule, J. B. (1989). Review of Tainter, J. A., The Collapse of Complex Societies [1988]. Population and Environment 11: 72–74.Google Scholar
  66. Sanderson, S. K. (1999). Social Transformations: A General Theory of Historical Development, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD.Google Scholar
  67. Sandweiss, D., and Quilter, J. (eds.) (2008). El niño, Catastrophism, and Culture Change in Ancient America, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, pp. 187–242.Google Scholar
  68. Shinde, V., Deshpande, S. S., Osada, T., and Uno, T. (2006). Basic issues in Harappan archaeology: Some thoughts. Ancient Asia 1: 63–72.Google Scholar
  69. Singh, G., Wasson, R. J., and Agrawal, D. P. (1990). Vegetational and seasonal climate changes since last full glacial in the Thar desert. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 64: 351–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Snooks, G. D. (1996). The Dynamic Society: Exploring the Sources of Global Change, Routledge, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Staubwasser, M., Sirocko, F., Grootes, P. M., and Segl, M. (2003). Climate change at the 4.2 ka BP termination of the Indus Valley civilization and Holocene south Asian monsoon variability. Geophysical Research Letters 30: 1425, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016822.
  72. Steadman, S. R., and McMahon, G. (eds.) (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  73. Sutton, A. E., Dohn, J., Loyd, K., Tredennick, A., Bucini, G., Solorzano, A., Prihodko, L., and Hanan, N. P. (2010). Does warming increase the risk of civil war in Africa? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: E102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Swift, E. (2010). The End of the Western Roman Empire: An Archaeological Investigation, The History Press, Stroud.Google Scholar
  75. Tainter, J. A. (2000). Problem solving: Complexity, history, sustainability. Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 22: 3–41.Google Scholar
  76. Tol, R. S., and Wagner, S. (2010). Climate change and violent conflict in Europe over the last millennium. Climatic Change 99: 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Turchin, P. (2003). Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  78. Turchin, P., and Hall, T. D. (2003). Spatial synchrony among and within world-systems: Insights from theoretical ecology. Journal of World Systems Research 9: 37–64.Google Scholar
  79. Ward-Perkins, B. (2009). 407 and all that: Retrospective. Journal of Late Antiquity 2: 75–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Weiss, B. (1982). The decline of Late Bronze Age civilization as a possible response to climate change. Climate Change 4: 173–198.Google Scholar
  81. Whitehouse, D. (1988). Review of Tainter, J. A., The Collapse of Complex Societies [1988]. Antiquity 62: 798–799.Google Scholar
  82. Whittaker, C. R. (2004). Rome and Its Frontiers: The Dynamics of Empire, Routledge, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Whittow, M. (2009). Early medieval Byzantium and the end of the ancient world. Journal of Agrarian Change 9: 134–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Williams, E. W. (1962). The end of an epoch. Greece and Rome 9: 109–125.Google Scholar
  85. Yasuda, Y., and Shinde, V. (eds.) (2001). Monsoon and Civilization, Roli Books, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  86. Yerkes, R.W. (1998). The Woodland and Mississippi traditions in the prehistory of midwestern North America. Journal of World Prehistory 2: 307–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Younger, J. G., and Rehak, P. (2008a). The material culture of neopalatial Crete. In Shelmerdine, C. W. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 140–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Younger, J. G., and Rehak, P. (2008b). Minoan culture: Religion, burial customs, and administration. In Shelmerdine, C. W. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 165–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations