Journal of Archaeological Research

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 339–395 | Cite as

The Archaeology of Trading Systems, Part 1: Towards a New Trade Synthesis

Article

Abstract

After almost three centuries of investigations into the question of what it means to be human and the historical processes of becoming human, archaeologists have amassed a huge volume of data on prehistoric human interactions. One of the largest data sets available is on the global distribution and exchange of materials and commodities. What still remains insufficiently understood is the precise nature of these interactions and their role in shaping the diverse cultures that make up the human family as we know it. A plethora of theoretical models combined with a multitude of methodological approaches exist to explain one important aspect of human interaction—trade—and its role and place in shaping humanity. We argue that trade parallels political, religious, and social processes as one of the most significant factors to have affected our evolution. Here we review published literature on archaeological approaches to trade, including the primitivist-modernist and substantivist-formalist-Marxist debates. We also discuss economic, historical, and ethnographic research that directly addresses the role of traders and trade in both past and contemporary societies. In keeping with the complexities of interaction between trade and other aspects of human behavior, we suggest moving away from the either/or perspective or strong identification with any particular paradigm and suggest a return to the middle through a combinational approach to the study of trade in past societies.

Keywords

Trade Trading systems Traders Archaeology Exchange Interaction Economic history Economic anthropology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

A brief meeting with Gary Feinman at the 1997 SAA annual meeting was followed by an invitation to contribute an article to the Journal of Archaeological Research on the archaeology of trading systems. In 1999, Rahul Oka joined the East African research team and hence began a worldwide survey of the literature of trade. Our initial idea was to write a paper specific to our geographic research area, but it immediately dawned on us that the task at hand would be better addressed at a global level, given the nature of the subject matter. We truly appreciate and will remain indebted to Gary and Linda Nicholas for their patience and encouragement as we struggled with various approaches for addressing the issues of trade within archaeology. We thank the five anonymous reviewers and Carla Sinopoli for their careful, albeit critical, reading and commentary on the first draft. We also thank Larry Keeley, Laura Junker, John Terrell, Sylvia Vatuk, Ian Kuijt, Agustin Fuentes, and Carolyn Nordstrom for various discussions on the nature of trade and exchange. We thank Heather Frost for her work on the bibliography. We are truly indebted to our colleague and mentor Ben Bronson for the many conversations we had on this topic; Ben’s encyclopedic knowledge and mastery of these issues is unrivaled. We are privileged to have spent the past 14 years in his company. Ben retired at the end of 2007; we dedicate this article and its sequel to Dr. Bennett Bronson, our colleague, mentor, and teacher.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyField Museum of Natural HistoryChicagoUSA

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