Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Evaluation of mercury adsorption and removal efficacy of pulverized Chlorella (C. vulgaris)

Abstract

Chlorella is a green alga consumed as dietary food supplement in pulverized form. In addition to its high nutritional value, it is reported as an excellent detoxifying agent. Pulverized Chlorella has been reported for removal of cadmium and radioactive strontium from the body. Chlorella adsorbs these metal ions on its surface; thus, the physiological pH of gastrointestinal tract is an important factor which may affect its efficacy. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate mercury adsorption and removal efficacy of pulverized Chlorella vulgaris. The adsorption efficacy was investigated in terms of the weight of Chlorella, contact time, mercury concentration, simulated physiological fluids (SGF and SIF) and influence of pH. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were fitted to determine the maximum adsorption capacity. In addition, mercury removal efficiency of Chlorella was evaluated in mice. The mercury content in major tissues, urine and faeces was estimated. The whole tissue retention of mercury after the treatment with Chlorella was taken as a measure of its mercury removal efficacy. The mercury content was measured using validated atomic absorption spectrometer. Chlorella showed significant increase in adsorption of mercury, and the equilibrium was achieved at 180 min. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 111.11, 83.33 and 125 mg g−1Chlorella in water, SGF and SIF, respectively. In mice, Chlorella significantly reduced the deposition of mercury in tissues and facilitated its excretion through faeces. Pulverized Chlorella showed potential adsorption efficiency and may considered a promising agent in counteracting the toxic effects elicited by mercury.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Amini M, Younesi H, Bahramifar N (2013) Biosorption of U (VI) from aqueous solution by Chlorella vulgaris : equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Environ Eng 139:410–421

  2. ATSDR (1999) Toxicological profile for mercury. agency for toxic substances and disease registry (ATSDR). U.S. Public Health Service, Atlanta, USA

  3. Ayawei N, Ebelegi AN, Wankasi D (2017) Modelling and interpretation of adsorption isotherms. J Chemother 2017:3039817

  4. Baldwin DR, Marshall WJ (1999) Heavy metal poisoning and its laboratory investigation. Ann Clin Biochem 36:267–300

  5. Bernhoft RA (2012) Mercury toxicity and treatment: a review of the literature. J Environ Public Health 2012:460508

  6. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena JR, Louis R, Green JL, Rumack BH, Heard SE (2008) 2007 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' national poison data system (NPDS): 25th annual report. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 46:927–1057

  7. Cheng J, Yin W, Chang Z, Lundholm N, Jiang Z (2017) Biosorption capacity and kinetics of cadmium(II) on live and dead Chlorella vulgaris. J Appl Phycol 29:211–221

  8. Edris G, Alhamed Y, Alzahrani A (2014) Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solutions by Chlorella vulgaris biomass: equilibrium and kinetic study. Arab J Sci Eng 39:87–93

  9. Goyer R (1991) Toxic effects of metals. In: Amdur MO, Doull JD, Klassen CD (eds) Casarett and Doull's toxicology, 4th edn. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 623–680

  10. Kumar M, Singh AK, Sikandar M (2018) Study of sorption and desorption of cd (II) from aqueous solution using isolated green algae Chlorella vulgaris. Appl Water Sci 8:225–211

  11. Lalhruaitluanga H, Jayaram K, Prasad MN, Kumar KK (2010) Lead (II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by raw and activated charcoals of Melocanna baccifera Roxburgh (bamboo) - a comparative study. J Hazard Mater 175:311–318

  12. Mercola J, Klinghardt D (2001) Mercury toxicity and systemic elimination agents. J Nutr Environ Med 11:53–62

  13. Ogawa K, Fukuda T, Han J, Kitamura Y, Shiba K, Odani A (2016) Evaluation of Chlorella as a decorporation agent to enhance the elimination of radioactive strontium from body. PLoS One 11:e0148080

  14. Park JD, Zheng W (2012) Human exposure and health effects of inorganic and elemental mercury. J Prev Med Public Health 45:344–352

  15. Patrick L (2002) Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: part I: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. Altern Med Rev 7:456–471

  16. Puranik PR, Paknikar KM (1999) Biosorption of lead, cadmium, and zinc by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181: characterization studies. Biotechnol Prog 15:228–237

  17. Rezaei H, Kulkarni SD, Saptarshi PG (2012) Study of physical chemistry on biosorption of zinc by using Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Russ J Phys Chem 86:1332–1339

  18. Rowland IR, Robinson RD, Doherty RA (1984) Effects of diet on mercury metabolism and excretion in mice given methylmercury: role of gut flora. Arch Environ Health 39:401–408

  19. Safi C, Zebib B, Merah O, Pontalier PY, Vaca-Garcia C (2014) Morphology, composition, production, processing and applications of Chlorella vulgaris: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 35:265–278

  20. Sharma RM, Azeez PA (1988) Accumulation of copper and cobalt by blue-green algae at different temperatures. Int J Environ Anal Chem 32:87–95

  21. Shen QH, Zhi TT, Cheng LH, Xu XH, Chen HL (2013) Hexavalent chromium detoxification by nonliving Chlorella vulgaris cultivated under tuned conditions. Chem Eng J 228:993–1002

  22. Shim JA, Son YA, Park JM, Kim MK (2009) Effect of Chlorella intake on cadmium metabolism in rats. Nutr Res Pract 3:15–22

  23. Solisio C, Al Arni S, Converti A (2017) Adsorption of inorganic mercury from aqueous solutions onto dry biomass of Chlorella vulgaris: kinetic and isotherm study. Environ Technol 3330:1–9

  24. Svadlenkova M, Lukavsky J, Kviderova J (2005) Radionuclides 137Cs and 60Co uptake by freshwater and marine microalgae Chlorella, Navicula, Phaeodactylum. In: Bréchignac F, Desmet G (eds) Equidosimetry-ecological standardization and equidosimetry for radioecology and environmental ecology. NATO security through science series (series C: environmental security). Springer, Dordrecht, pp 379–387.

  25. Sydney EB, Novak AC, de Carvalho JC, Soccol CR (2014) Respirometric balance and carbon fixation of industrially important algae. Biofuels from Algae 2014:67–84.

  26. Vogel M, Gunther A, Rossberg A, Li B, Bernhard G, Raff J (2010) Biosorption of U(VI) by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris in dependence of pH value and cell activity. Sci Total Environ 409:384–395

  27. Wang J, Chen C (2006) Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review. Biotechnol Adv 24:427–451

  28. Wehrheim B, Wettern M (1994) Biosorption of cadmium, copper and lead by isolated mother cell walls and whole cells of Chlorella fusca. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 41:725–728

  29. WHO (2003) Elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds: human health aspects. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva. https://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad50.pdf. Accessed 14 August 2019

  30. Wilkinson SC, Goulding KH, Robinson PK (1990) Mercury removal by immobilized algae in batch culture systems. J Appl Phycol 2:223–230

  31. Yen HW, Chen PW, Hsu CY, Lee L (2017) The use of autotrophic Chlorella vulgaris in chromium (VI) reduction under different reduction conditions. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 74:1–6

  32. Yüksel B, Kaya S, Kaya-Akyüzlü D, Kayaaltı Z, Söylemezoglu T (2017) Validation and optimization of an analytical method based on cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in maternal blood, cord blood, and placenta samples. At Spectrosc 38:112–116

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thanks Director, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), DRDO, Ministry of Defence, New Delhi for providing all the necessary facilities and requirement to complete this study. The authors would like to thanks Appellate Lab (ST 7/8), Army Headquarters, Ministry of Defence, New Delhi for providing amenities for atomic absorption spectroscopy studies.

Author information

Correspondence to Nidhi Sandal.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yadav, M., Rani, K., Chauhan, M.K. et al. Evaluation of mercury adsorption and removal efficacy of pulverized Chlorella (C. vulgaris). J Appl Phycol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-020-02052-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Chlorella
  • Mercury
  • Heavy metals
  • Adsorption
  • Atomic absorption spectrometer