Assessing the impact of sulfur concentrations on growth and biochemical composition of three marine microalgae
The elemental stoichiometry, growth and biochemical composition of Nannochloropsis gaditana, Rhodomonas marina and Isochrysis sp. were studied in batch cultures against different nitrogen and sulfur molar ratios (N:S) imposed in their surroundings. In N. gaditana, treatments with low N:S lead to an increase in carbon:sulfur (C:S) and N:S molar ratios up to 95 and 81%, respectively. This was reflected in lipid and protein contents which increased up to 67 and 55%, respectively. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as its precursors, increased in low N/S treatments. In R. marina, the treatments applied promptly the decrease of both C:S and N:S ratios to 70 and 68%, respectively. Nevertheless, eicosapentaenoic:arachidonic acid ratio increased with N:S treatments by three and a half fold. In Isochrysis sp., the elemental stoichiometry was constrained against treatments until the highest sulfur input. Overall, sulfur supply highlighted microalgae taxonomic differences and suggested that biochemical control is required, even in nutrient replete conditions, to fully exploit their potential as added value biomachineries.
KeywordsSulfur Nannochloropsis gaditana Rhodomonas marina Isochrysis sp.
This study was partially supported by the Oceanic Observatory of Madeira (M1420-01-0145-FEDER-000001-Observatório Oceânico da Madeira-OOM).
- Andersen RA (2013) The microalgal cell. In: Richmond A, Hu Q (eds) Handbook of microalgal culture: applied phycology and biotechnology. Wiley, NY pp 3–20Google Scholar
- Cohen Z, Vonshak A, Richmond A (1988) Effect of environmental conditions on fatty acid composition of the red alga Phorphyridium cruentum correlation to growth rate. J Phycol 24:328–332Google Scholar
- Falkowski PG, Raven JA (1997) Making Cells. In: Falkowski PG, Raven JA (eds) Aquatic photosynthesis. Blackwell Science, Hoboken, pp 228–262Google Scholar
- Fields MW, Hise A, Lohman EJ, Bell T, Gardner RD, Corredor L, Moll K, Peyton BM, Characklis GW, Gerlach R (2014) Sources and resources: importance of nutrients, resource allocation, and ecology in microalgal cultivation for lipid accumulation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:4805–4816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muhlroth A, Li K, Rokke G, Winge P, Olsen Y, Hohmann-Marriott MF, Vadstein O, Bones AM (2013) Pathways of lipid metabolism in marine algae, co-expression network, bottlenecks and candidate genes for enhanced production of EPA and DHA in species of Chromista. Mar Drugs 11:4662–4697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Simionato D, Block MA, La Rocca N, Jouhet J, Maréchal E, Finazzi G, Morosinottoa T (2013) The response of Nannochloropsis gaditana to nitrogen starvation includes de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerols, a decrease of chloroplast galactolipids, and reorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus. Eukaryot Cell 12:665–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar