Effects of temperature and salinity on the growth and biochemical composition of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme (Fucales, Phaeophyceae)

  • Jingyu Li
  • Yingchao Liu
  • Yan Liu
  • Qiaohan Wang
  • Xu GaoEmail author
  • Qingli GongEmail author


Temperature and salinity are well-known environmental factors that affect the growth and biochemical composition of brown algae. In this study, we conducted a culture experiment to test the effects of temperature (10, 15, and 20 °C) and salinity (10, 20, 30, and 40 psu) on specific growth rates (SGR) and five compounds (carbon, nitrogen, chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl c, and fucoxanthin) of Sargassum fusiforme, an ecologically and commercially important species. The results showed that both temperature and salinity had significant effects on SGR and the tissue contents of carbon and nitrogen. Maximal SGR of 6.04% day−1 was achieved at 20 °C and 30 psu. The highest tissue content of carbon (38.19 ± 1.01%) was obtained at 10 °C and 30 psu, while that of nitrogen (2.78 ± 0.09%) was at 15 °C and 10 psu. Significant positive effects of increased temperature were found on both Chl a and Chl c contents. A significant positive effect of increased salinity was only found on the Chl a content. The Chl a and Chl c contents were maximized at 0.50 ± 0.03 and 0.16 ± 0.03 mg g−1 at 15 °C and 20 psu. In addition, significant positive effect of increased temperature and significant negative effect of increased salinity were detected for the fucoxanthin content; this was at a maximum of 2.62 ± 0.04 mg g−1 at 15 °C and 10 psu. These physiological data provide valuable information related to the enhancement of S. fusiforme composition when in cultivation under controlled conditions.


Biochemical compositions Growth Salinity Sargassum fusiforme Phaeophyta Temperature 



We would like to thank Mr. Zhongming Huang for kindly providing the Sargassum fusiforme samples.

Funding information

This study was supported by the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Projects of Ocean (No.200905020-2 and No.201405040-4) from the State Oceanic Administration, China.


  1. Andria JR, Vergara JJ, Llorens LP (1999) Biochemical responses and photosynthetic performance of Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyta) from Cádiz, Spain, cultured under different inorganic carbon and nitrogen levels. Eur J Phycol 34:497–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baghel RS, Kumari P, Reddy CRK, Jha B (2014) Growth, pigments, and biochemical composition of marine red alga Gracilaria crassa. J Appl Phycol 26:2143–2150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bird KT, Habig C, DeBusk T (1982) Nitrogen allocation and storage patterns in Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyta). J Phycol 18:344–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boderskov T, Schmedes PS, Bruhn A, Rasmussen MB, Nielsen MM, Pedersen MF (2016) The effect of light and nutrient availability on growth, nitrogen, and pigment contents of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) grown in outdoor tanks, under natural variation of sunlight and temperature, during autumn and early winter in Denmark. J Appl Phycol 28:1153–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chapman ARO, Markham JW, Lüning K (1978) Effects of nitrate concentration on the growth and physiology of Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) in culture. J Phycol 14:195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen X, Nie W, Yu G, Li Y, Hu Y, Lu J, Jin L (2012) Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme. Food Chem Toxicol 50:695–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Colvard NB, Carrington E, Helmuth B (2014) Temperature-dependent photosynthesis in the intertidal alga Fucus gardneri and sensitivity to ongoing climate change. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 458:6–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dawes CJ, Tomasko DA (1988) Physiological responses of perennial bases of Sargassum filipendula from three sites on the west coast of Florida. Bull Mar Sci 42:166–173Google Scholar
  9. Díaz-Villa T, Sansón M, Afonso-Carrillo J (2005) Seasonal variations in growth and reproduction of Sargassum orotavicum (Fucales,Phaeophyceae) from the Canary Islands. Bot Mar 48:18–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duarte P, Ferreira JG (1995) Seasonal adaptation and short-term metabolic responses of Gelidium sesquipedale to varying light and temperature. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 121:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Einav R, Breckle S, Beer S (1995) Ecophysiological adaptation strategies of some intertidal marine macroalgae of the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 125:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Endo H, Okumura Y, Sato Y, Agatsuma Y (2017) Interactive effects of nutrient availability, temperature, and irradiance on photosynthetic pigments and color of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida. J Appl Phycol 29:1683–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Flukes EB, Wright JT, Johnson CR (2015) Phenotypic plasticity and biogeographic variation in physiology of habitat-forming seaweed: response to temperature and nitrate. J Phycol 51:896–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fredersdorf J, Müller R, Becker S, Wiencke C, Bischof K (2009) Interactive effects of radiation, temperature and salinity on different life history stages of the Arctic kelp Alaria esculenta (Phaeophyceae). Oecologia 160:483–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gao X, Endo H, Taniguchi K, Agatsuma Y (2013) Combined effects of seawater temperature and nutrient condition on growth and survival of juvenile sporophytes of the kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales; Phaeophyta) cultivated in northern Honshu, Japan. J Appl Phycol 25:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gao X, Endo H, Nagaki M, Agatsuma Y (2016) Growth and survival of juvenile sporophytes of the kelp Ecklonia cava in response to different nitrogen and temperature regimes. Fish Sci 82:623–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gao X, Endo H, Nagaki M, Agatsuma Y (2017) Interactive effects of nutrient availability and temperature on growth and survival of different size classes of Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 56:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. García-Sánchez MJ, Fernández JA, Niel FX (1993) Biochemical and physiological responses of Gracilaria tenuistipitata under two different nitrogen treatments. Physiol Plant 88:631–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerard VA (1997) The role of nitrogen nutrition in high-temperature tolerance of the kelp, Laminaria saccharina (Chromophyta). J Phycol 33:800–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gillespie RD, Critchley AT (1999) Phenology of Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) from Reunion Rocks, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 398:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Glenn EP, Smith CM, Doty MS (1990) Influence of antecedent water temperatures on standing crop of a Sargassum spp.-dominated reef flat in Hawaii. Mar Biol 105:323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gordillo FJL, Dring MJ, Savidge G (2002) Nitrate and phosphate uptake characteristics of three species of brown algae cultured at low salinity. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 234:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guo H, Yao JT, Sun ZM, Duan DL (2015) Effects of temperature, irradiance on the growth of the green alga Caulerpa lentillifera (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). J Appl Phycol 27:879–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hales JM, Fletcher RL (1989) Studies on the recently introduced brown alga Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt. IV. The effect of temperature, irradiance and salinity on germling growth. Bot Mar 32:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Han YR, Ali MY, Woo MH, Jung HA, Choi JS (2015) Anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of the edible brown alga Hizikia fusiformis. J Food Biochem 39:417–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hurd CL, Harrison PJ, Bischof K, Lobban CS (2014) Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hwang SP, Williams SL, Brinkhuis BH (1987) Changes in internal dissolved nitrogen pools as related to nitrate uptake and assimilation in Gracilaria tikvahiae McLachlan (Rhodophyta). Bot Mar 30:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hwang EK, Cho YC, Sohn CH (1999) Reuse of holdfasts in Hizikia fusiformis cultivation. J Korean Fish Soc 32:112–116 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  29. Karsten U (2012) Seaweed acclimation to salinity and desiccation stress. In: Wiencke C, Bischof K (eds) Seaweed biology: ecological studies (analysis and synthesis). Springer, Berlin, pp 87–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kokubu S, Nishihara GN, Watanabe Y, Tsuchiya Y, Amamo Y, Terada R (2015) The effect of irradiance and temperature on the photosynthesis of a native alga Sargassum fusiforme (Fucales) from Kagoshima, Japan. Phycologia 54:235–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lapointe BE, Duke CS (1984) Biochemical strategies for growth of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyta) in relation to light intensity and nitrogen availability. J Phycol 20:488–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee Y, Kang S (2001) A catalogue of the seaweeds in Korea. Cheju National University Press, Jeju (in Korean)Google Scholar
  33. Levy I, Gantt E (1990) Development of photosynthetic activity in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta) following nitrogen starvation. J Phycol 26:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li JY, Fu XT, Duan DL, Xu JC, Gao X (2018) Comparison study of bioactive substances and nutritional components of brown algae Sargassum fusiforme strains with different vesicle shapes. J Appl Phycol 30:3271–3283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu LP (2012) Studies on extraction and physicochemical properties of fucoxanthin from Hizikia fusiformis. Dissertation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  36. Lüning K (1990) Seaweeds: their environment, biogeography, and ecophysiology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Ma XY, Liu FL, Liang ZR, Wang FJ, Sun XT, Wang WJ, Ling JY (2014) Effects of pH and salinity stress on photosynthesis and antioxidant system of Sargassum thunbergii. J Shanghai Ocean Univ 23:208–214 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  38. Mantri VA, Singh RP, Bijo AJ, Kumari P, Reddy CRK, Jha B (2011) Differential response of varying salinity and temperature on zoospore induction, regeneration and daily growth rate in Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta, Ulvales). J Appl Phycol 23:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Martins I, Oliveira JM, Flindt MR, Marques JC (1999) The effect of salinity on the growth rate of the macroalgae Enteromorpha intestinalis (Chlorophyta) in the Mondego estuary (west Portugal). Acta Oecol 20:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Momose Y, Ito K, Agatsuma Y, Taniguchi K (2006) Photosynthesis activities of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme under different light intensities, seawater temperature and salinities in relation to an attachment of sessile diatoms. Aquacult Sci 54:383–390 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  41. Niwa K, Harada K (2013) Physiological responses to nitrogen deficiency and resupply in different blade portions of Pyropia yezoensis f. narawaensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 439:113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pang SJ, Zhang ZH, Zhao HJ, Sun JZ (2007) Cultivation of the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura: stress resistance of artificially raised young seedlings revealed by chlorophyll fluorescence measurement. J Appl Phycol 19:557–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pang SJ, Shan TF, Zhang ZH, Sun JZ (2008) Cultivation of the intertidal brown alga Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura: mass production of zygote-derived seedlings under commercial cultivation conditions, a case study experience. Aquac Res 39:1408–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steen H (2004) Effects of reduced salinity on reproduction and germling development in Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae, Fucales). Eur J Phycol 39:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stiger V, Horiguchi T, Yoshida T, Coleman AW, Masuda M (2003) Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Sargassum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae), inferred from ITS-2 nrDNA, with an emphasis on the taxonomic subdivision of the genus. Phycol Res 51:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sun YY, Sun QH, Sun JZ (2009) Effect of temperature on the growth of Sargassum fusiforme. J Zhejiang Ocean Univ 28:342–347 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  47. Suwa T (2014) Growth of hijiki Sargassum fusiforme at Saba-Shima and Sen-emon-Dashi, which are rocky reefs in Hime, Kushimoto-cho, Wakayama prefecture. Algal Resour 7:61–65 (in Japanese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  48. Tatewaki M (1966) Formation of a crustose sporophyte with unilocular sporangia in Scytosiphon lomentaria. Phycologia 6:62–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tseng CK (1983) Common seaweeds of China. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  50. Tseng CK (2000) Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum. Tomus III Phaeophyta, No II. Fucales. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  51. Turpin DH (1991) Effects of inorganic N availability on algal photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. J Phycol 27:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vergara JJ, Bird KT, Niell FX (1995) Nitrogen assimilation following NH4 + pulses in the red alga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis: effect on C metabolism. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 122:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wilkinson M, Wood P, Wells E, Scanlan C (2007) Using attached macroalgae to assess ecological status of British estuaries for the European Water Framework Directive. Mar Pollut Bull 55:136–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yeong BM-L, Wong C-L (2013) Seasonal growth rate of Sargassum species at Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson, Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 25:805–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yoshida T (1998) Marine algae of Japan. Uchida Roukakuho Publishing, Tokyo (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  56. Yoshida G, Shimabukuro H (2017) Seasonal population dynamics of Sargassum fusiforme (Fucales, Phaeophyta), Suo-Oshima Is., Seto Inland Sea, Japan—development processes of a stand characterized by high density and productivity. J Appl Phycol 29:639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang JT, Gu LL, Liu Y, Gong QL, Li JY (2012) Effects of temperature and nitrogen on nitrogen uptake and growth of young sporophytes of Sargassum thunbergii. Period Ocean Univ China 42:264–269 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  58. Zou DH (2005) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in the economic brown seaweed, Hizikia fusiforme (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta). Aquaculture 250:726–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zou DH, Gao KS (2005) Photosynthetic characteristics of the economic brown seaweed Hizikia fusiforme (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta), with special reference to its leaf and receptacle. J Appl Phycol 17:255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zou DH, Gao KS, Ruan ZX (2006) Seasonal pattern of reproduction of Hizikia fusiformis (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) from Nanao Island, Shantou, China. J Appl Phycol 18:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zou DH, Liu SX, Du H, Xu JT (2012) Growth and photosynthesis in seedlings of Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) cultured at two different temperatures. J Appl Phycol 24:1321–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zou XX, Xing SS, Su X, Zhu J, Huang HQ, Bao SX (2018) The effects of temperature, salinity and irradiance upon the growth of Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh (Phaeophyceae). J Appl Phycol 30:1207–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fisheries CollegeOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Biological Science and Sea & BiotechWonkwang UniversityIksanSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations