Life history, growth, and pigment content of two morphological variants of Hypnea pseudomusciformis (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)
Specimens previously described as Hypnea musciformis and Hypnea nigrescens in Brazil were shown to be morphological variants of a new species named Hypnea pseudomusciformis, which has been used for the production of carrageenan on the coast of Brazil. In this study, individuals of both morphological variants were collected in the field and cultivated in unialgal culture conditions. The life history of both variants was completed in 118 days. Tetrasporophytes produced tetrasporangia in 40 days. Released tetraspores germinated and 15 days later, an erect cylindrical axis developed from basal disk. At the age of 35 days, spermatangial conceptacles could be observed, and after 3 days of co-culture of male and female gametophytes, cystocarps could be observed, indicating the occurrence of fertilization. Finally, carpospores were released from cystocarps after 10 days, germinated and originated new tetrasporophytes in 15 days. When cultured, the morphological differences between the “musciformis” and “nigrescens” variants were attenuated and the life histories were the same. Furthermore, both morphological variants had different growth rates, but similar pigment content. These results corroborate that, for Brazil, specimens previously identified as H. musciformis and H. nigrescens are variants of H. pseudomusciformis, a highly plastic species.
KeywordsRhodophyta Hypnea Culture Growth rates Physiological plasticity Pigments
Thanks to all members from Marine Algae Laboratories (LAM) from University of São Paulo, Brazil, and to Rosário Petti and William Oliveira for technical support. Special thanks to Dr. Nair S. Yokoya, from São Paulo Institute of Botany for the help in the early stages of culture.
We are grateful for the support from FAPESP (Biota 2013/11833-3) and CNPq (301491/2013-5; 300148/ 93-3). This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- Berchez FAS, Oliveira-Filho EC (1990) Maricultural essays with the carragenophyte Hypnea musciformis in São Paulo, Brazil. In: Oliveira ECF, Kautsky N (eds) Cultivation of seaweeds in Latin América. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, pp 89–94Google Scholar
- Destombe C, Godin J, Nocher M, Richerd S, Valero M (1993) Differences in response between haploid and diploid isomorphic phases of Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales) exposed to artificial environmental conditions. Hydrobiologia 260/261:131–137Google Scholar
- Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
- Jesus PB (2016) Estudos biossistemáticos em espécies do gênero Hypnea J.V. Lamouroux (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Doctoral Thesis. Feira de Santana. 221 pGoogle Scholar
- Lamouroux JV (1813) Essai sur les genres de la famille des Thalassiophytes non articulées. Ann Mus d'Hist Nat Paris 20:21–47 115–139, 267–293, pls 7–13Google Scholar
- Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C (2001) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: measurement and characterization by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Curr Protocols Food Analyt Chem F4(3):1–F4.3.8Google Scholar
- Masuda M, Yamagishi Y, Chiang YM, Lewmanomont K, Xia B (1997) Overview of Hypnea (Rhodophyta, Hypneaceae). In: Abbott IA (ed) Taxonomy of economic seaweeds, vol 6. California Sea Grant College System, La Jolla, pp 127–133Google Scholar
- Nauer F, Cassano V, Oliveira MC (2014) Hypnea species (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from the southeastern coast of Brazil based on molecular studies complemented with morphological analyses, including descriptions of Hypnea edeniana sp. nov. and H. flava sp. nov. Eur J Phycol 49:550–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oliveira EC (1998) The seaweed resources of Brazil. In: Critchley AT, Ohno M (eds) Seaweed resources of the world. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Yokosuka, pp 366–371Google Scholar
- Plastino EM, Guimarães M (2001) Diversidad intraespecifica. In: Alveal KV, Antezana TJ (eds) Sustentabilidad de la Biodiversidad. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, pp 19–27Google Scholar
- Rao RK (1970) Studies on growth cycle and phycocolloid content in Hypnea musciformis (Wulf.) Lamour. Bot Mar 13:163–165Google Scholar
- Schenkman RPF (1986) Cultura de Hypnea (Rhodophyta) in vitro como subsídio para estudos morfológicos, reprodutivos e taxonômicos. Doctoral Thesis. Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo. 81 pp.Google Scholar
- Swofford DL (2002) PAUP: phylogenetic analysis using parismony, version 4.08a. Computer program distributed by the Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IllGoogle Scholar
- Ursi S, Plastino EM (2001) Crescimento in vitro de linhagens de coloração vermelha e verde clara de Gracilaria sp. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) em dois meios de cultura: análise de diferentes estádios reprodutivos. Rev Bras Bot 4:585–592Google Scholar
- Wallner M, Lobo S, Boccanera N, Silva EM (1992) Biomass, carrageenan yield and reproductive state of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales) under natural and experimental cultivated conditions. Aquacult Fish Manag 23:443–451Google Scholar
- Wanderley A (2009) [Effect of nitrate availability on growth, nitrate reductase activity, chemical composition and nitrate and phosphate uptake in Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta)]. Masters Dissertation.. Institute of Bioscience, University of São Paulo. São Paulo. 140 pp [In Portuguese]Google Scholar
- Yokoya NS, Plastino EM, Artel R (2003) Physiological responses and pigment characterization of two colour strains of the carrageenophyte Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta). In: ARO C, Anderson RJ, Vreeland VJ, Davison IR (eds) Proceedings of the 17th International Seaweed Symposium. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 425–433Google Scholar