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De novo transcriptomic analysis of the oleaginous alga Botryococcus braunii AC768 (Chlorophyta)

  • Xiaolin Zhang
  • Fang Wen
  • Zhenyu Xu
  • Deying Sun
  • Wee Chew
  • Jianhua Liu
Article

Abstract

The oleaginous alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta) is known to accumulate hydrocarbons up to 80% of cell dry weight. Races A, B, and L of B. braunii species accumulate alkadiene/triene, botryococcene, and lycopadiene, respectively. Transcriptome analyses in race A and race B have identified various transcripts encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of alkadiene/triene and botryococcene. However, the transcriptome of B. braunii race L has not been analyzed. In this study, we report the de novo assembly of the transcriptome of B. braunii AC768 race L. AC768 culture in 2×BB medium reaches a maximum density (cell dry weight) of 5.5 g L−1, of which, 6% is lycopadiene. Transcriptional profiles of AC768 show that ESTs involved in energy metabolisms are most abundantly expressed, suggesting an energy requirement for lipid accumulation. Transcriptomic analysis indicates the presence of a putative lycopaoctaene synthase that synthesizes the precursor of lycopadiene in AC768. Comparative analysis between races reveals that botryococcene synthase and lycopaoctaene synthase are specific to races B and L of B. braunii, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that hydrocarbon chemicals accumulated in different races of B. braunii are determined by their transcriptional profiles.

Keywords

Botryococcus Hydrocarbon Lycopadiene Race L Squalene synthase-like proteins Transcriptome 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewer for his/her thoughtful comments and suggestions that have greatly improved this manuscript.

Author contributions

XZ, DS, WC, and JL performed the biological and biochemical studies; FW, ZX, and JL carried out the bioinformatics and statistical studies; JL conceived of the study and participated in its design and coordination; JL drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding information

This work was partly supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31571392) and grants from the Zhoushan Municipal Science and Technology Bureau, Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. 2012C31019 and 2014C51020) to JL, and a grant from Joint Council Office, A-STAR, Singapore (Grant No. 1031C002) to JL and WC. FW and ZX are recipients of the M.Sc. scholarship in Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Province, China.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study does not involve human and animal materials.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ocean CollegeZhejiang UniversityZhoushanChina
  2. 2.Genome Institute of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Biopolis Shared Facilities, A-STARSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Instittute of Chemical and Engineering SciencesSingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.Ocean Research Center of ZhoushanZhejiang UniversityZhoushanChina

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