The effects of light intensity and temperature on the calcification rate of Halimeda macroloba
As a phototrophic organism the calcareous green alga Halimeda macroloba is considered an important source of primary production. These algae live in a range of environments and help sequester CO2 through photosynthesis and calcification in coastal marine ecosystems. This study examined the calcification rate of H. macroloba under various light (50, 500, 900, 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1) and temperature (25, 30, 35 °C) conditions. The rates of calcification, photosynthetic inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake, and relative electron transport rate (rETR) were measured using alkalinity titration methods and pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry in an experimental setup based on observation data; additionally, a future climate change scenario was simulated. The light intensity of 500 μmol photons m−2 s−1 promoted high calcification and Ci uptake rates at all temperatures, with the highest rates at 25 °C. The very low light intensity of 50 μmol photons m−2 s−1 was not enough to stimulate plant photosynthesis and calcification. The rates of both calcification and Ci uptake were significantly lower at all temperatures when plants were subjected to a high irradiance of 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1 than those in the other light conditions. Photosynthetic rETR seems to be dependent on light intensity, but might not reflect the high production of plants under intense light conditions. Finally, we discuss how Halimeda could contribute to CO2 sequestration in response to climate change.
KeywordsChlorophyta Halimeda macroloba Calcification Calcium carbonate Climate change Light intensity Temperature
We thank the Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, for providing facilities for laboratory work. We are grateful for valuables suggetions and discussions from Prof. Sven Beer and Prof. Michael Borowitzka, which helped improve the manuscript and shaped up our research.
This research was supported by the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), under grant no. P-13-00576, and by the PTT Public Company Limited.
- Abel KM, Drew EA (1985) Response of Halimeda metabolism to various environmental parameters. Proceeding of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, 5: 21–26Google Scholar
- Anderson DH, Robinson RJ (1946) Rapid electrometric determination of the alkalinity of sea water using a glass electrode. Ind Eng Chem Res 18:767–769Google Scholar
- Beer S, Björk M, Beardall J (2014) Photosynthesis in the marine environment. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp 224Google Scholar
- Beer S, Björk M, Gademann R, Ralph, P (2001) Measurement of photosynthetic rates in seagrasses. In: Short FT, Coles R (eds) Global seagrass research methods. Elsevier Publishing, Amsterdam. pp 183–198Google Scholar
- Björk M, Short F, Mcleod E., Beer S (2008) Managing seagrasses for resilience to climate change. IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Borowitzka MA (1986) Physiology and biochemistry of calcification in the Chlorophyceae. In: Leadbeater B, Riding H (eds.) Biomineralization in the lower plants and animals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 108–124Google Scholar
- Byrne M (2011) Impact of ocean warming and ocean acidification on marine invertebrate life history stages: vulnerabilities and potential for persistence in a changing ocean. Oceanogr Mar Biol 49:1–42Google Scholar
- Enríquez S, Borowitzka MA (2011) The use of the fluorescence signal in studies of seagrasses and macroalgae. In: Suggett DJ, Prásil O, Borowitzka MA (eds) Chlorophyll a fluorescence in aquatic sciences: methods and applications. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 187–208Google Scholar
- Houghton J (2009) Global warming: the complete briefing. Cambridge University, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
- Hughes TP, Kerry JT, Álvarez-Noriega M, Álvarez-Romero JG, Anderson KD, Baird AH, Babcock RC, Beger M, Bellwood DR, Berkelmans R, Bridge TC, Butler IR, Byrne M, Cantin NE, Comeau S, Connolly SR, Cumming GS, Dalton SJ, Diaz-Pulido G, Eakin CM, Figueira WF, Gilmour JP, Harrison HB, Heron SF, Hoey AS, Hobbs JPA, Hoogenboom MO, Kennedy EV, Kuo CY, Lough JM, Lowe RJ, Liu G, McCulloch MT, Malcolm HA, McWilliam MJ, Pandolfi JM, Pears RJ, Pratchett MS, Schoepf V, Simpson T, Skirving WJ, Sommer B, Torda G, Wachenfeld DR, Willis BL, Wilson SK (2017) Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature 543:373–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laffoley D, Grimsditch G (eds) (2009) The management of natural coastal carbon sinks. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 53 pp.Google Scholar
- Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Locarnini RA, Garcia HE, Mishonov AV (2009) Global ocean heat content 1995-2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems. Geophys Res Lett 36:Google Scholar
- Mayakun J, Kim JH, Lapointe BE, Prathep A (2012a) Gametangial characteristics in the sexual reproduction of Halimeda macroloba Decaisne (Chlorophyta: Halimedaceae). Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 34:211–216Google Scholar
- Mayakun J, Bunruk P, Kongsaeng R (2014) Growth rate and calcium carbonate accumulation of Halimeda macroloba Decaisne (Chlorophyta: Halimedaceae) in Thai waters. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 36:419–423Google Scholar
- Sinutok S, Pongparadon S, Prathep A (2008) Seasonal variation in density, growth rate and calcium carbonate accumulation of Halimeda macroloba Decaisne at Tangkhen Bay, Phuket Province, Thailand. Malaysian J Sci 27:1–8Google Scholar
- Sondak CFA, Ang PO, Beardall J, Bellgrove A, Boo SM, Gerung GS, Hepburn CD, Hong DD, Hu Z, Kawai K, Largo D, Lee JA, Lim PE, Mayakun J, Nelson WA, Oak JH, Phang SM, Sahoo D, Peerapornpis Y, Yang Y, Chung IK (2017a) Carbon dioxide mitigation potential of seaweed aquaculture beds (SABs). J Appl Phycol 29:2363–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sondak CFA, Ang PO, Beardall J, Bellgrove A, Boo SM, Gerung GS, Hepburn CD, Hong DD, Hu Z, Kawai H, Largo D, Lee JA, Lim P-E, Mayakun J, Nelson WA, Oak JH, Phang S-M, Sahoo D, Peerapornpis Y, Yang Y, Chung IK (2017b) Erratum to: carbon dioxide mitigation potential of seaweed aquaculture beds (SABs). J Appl Phycol 29:2375–2376CrossRefGoogle Scholar