Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 1765–1776 | Cite as

Effect and removal of bisphenol A by two extremophilic microalgal strains (Chlorophyta)

  • Sabrine Ben Ouada
  • Rihab Ben Ali
  • Christophe Leboulanger
  • Hatem Zaghden
  • Sirine Choura
  • Hatem Ben Ouada
  • Sami SayadiEmail author


The effects and the removal efficiency of bisphenol A (BPA) on two extremophilic Chlorophyta strains, an alkaliphilic Picocystis and a thermophilic Graesiella, were assessed. BPA was shown to inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of both species, but to a greater extent for Graesiella. The growth IC50 (4 days) was 32 mg L−1 for Graesiella and higher than 75 mg L−1 for Picocystis. Oxidative stress was induced in both strains when exposed to increasing BPA concentrations, as evidenced by increased malondialdehyde content. BPA exposure also resulted in an over-expression of antioxidant activities (ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and catalase) in Picocystis whereas they were repressed in Graesiella. Both species exhibited high BPA removal efficiency, reaching 72% for Picocystis and 52.6% for Graesiella at 25 mg L−1. BPA removal was mostly attributed to biodegradation for both species. Overall, according to its extended tolerance and its removal capacity, Picocystis appeared to be a promising species for the BPA bioremediation even at high contamination levels.


Microalgae Extremophiles Chlorophyta Bisphenol a Toxicity Biodegradation 


Funding information

Authors are thankful to the French Research Institute for Development (IRD) for financing the Ph.D stipend of Sabrine Ben Ouada under the Laboratory LMI Cosys-med project. The support of this work under “Contrat Programme of Laboratory of Environmental Bioprocesses” by The Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is also gratefully acknowledged.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabrine Ben Ouada
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rihab Ben Ali
    • 2
  • Christophe Leboulanger
    • 3
  • Hatem Zaghden
    • 1
  • Sirine Choura
    • 1
  • Hatem Ben Ouada
    • 2
  • Sami Sayadi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Environmental BioprocessesCenter of Biotechnology of SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Blue Biotechnology and Aquatic Bioproducts, National Institute of Marine Sciences and TechnologyMonastirTunisia
  3. 3.UMR 248 MARBEC (IRD-University Montpellier-CNRS-Ifremer)SéteFrance

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