Screening of BMAA-producing cyanobacteria in cultured isolates and in in situ blooms
- 414 Downloads
The amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) was screened in 23 cyanobacteria strains, isolated from freshwater, estuarine, or marine environments, and at 7 freshwater locations supporting recurrent cyanobacteria blooms. BMAA was present in one estuarine and one marine strain. The estuarine strain Nostoc sp. 06077, a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, had BMAA growing in a marine-based as well as in a freshwater-based culture medium, with and without nitrogen supplementation. Testing of more than one culture medium showed that no one prevailed for the production of BMAA. In field samples comprising blooms, BMAA was also not detected (the limit of quantification of the method being 0.83 μg g−1). Highlighting that the mechanism by which BMAA-producing cultures emerge is still not elucidated, BMAA could not be related to the morphological or phylogenetic diversity of the strains or geographical origin.
KeywordsBMAA Cyanobacteria Coastal environments Harmful algae blooms Neurotoxins
The authors wish to thank the European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COST Action ES1105 “CYANOCOST—Cyanobacterial blooms and toxins in water resources: Occurrence, impacts and management” for adding value to this study through networking and knowledge sharing with European experts and researchers in the field.
This work was funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal (UID/Multi/04423/2013, SFRH/BPD/104466/2014).
- Brenner ED, Stevenson DW, McCombie RW, Katari MS, Rudd SA, Mayer KF, Palenchar PM, Runko SJ, Twigg RW, Dai G, Martienssen RA, Benfey PN, Coruzz GM (2003) Expressed sequence tag analysis in Cycas, the most primitive living seed plant. Genome Biol 4:R78. doi: 10.1201/b12226-4 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Brito Â, Ramos V, Seabra R, Santos A, Santos CL, Lopo M, Ferreira S, Martins A, Mota R, Frazão B, Martins R, Vasconcelos V, Tamagnini P (2012) Culture-dependent characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in the intertidal zones of the Portuguese coast: a polyphasic study. Syst Appl Microbiol 35:110–119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Costa M, Garcia M, Costa-Rodrigues J, Costa MS, Ribeiro MJ, Fernandes MH, Barros P, Barreiro A, Vasconcelos V, Martins R (2014) Exploring bioactive properties of marine cyanobacteria isolated from the Portuguese coast: high potential as a source of anticancer compounds. Mar Drugs 12:98–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- European Union (2002) Commission Decision of 12 August 2002 implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results (2002) OJ L 221/8 (2002/657/EC)Google Scholar
- Faassen EJ, Antoniou MG, Beekman-Lukassen W, Blahova L, Chernova E, Christophoridis C, Combes A, Edwards C, Fastner J, Harmsen J, Hiskia A, Ilag LL, Kaloudis T, Lopicic S, Lürling M, Mazur-Marzec H, Meriluoto J, Porojan C, Viner-Mozzini Y, Zguna N (2016) A collaborative evaluation of LC-MS/MS based methods for BMAA analysis: soluble bound BMAA found to be an important fraction. Mar Drugs 14:45. doi: 10.3390/md14030045 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kotai J (1972) Instructions for preparation of modified nutrient solution Z8 for algae Norwegian Institute for Water Research. Oslo 11:5Google Scholar
- Li A, Fan H, Ma F, McCarron P, Thomas K, Tang X, Quilliam MA (2012) Elucidation of matrix effects and performance of solid-phase extraction for LC-MS/MS analysis of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) neurotoxins in cyanobacteria. Analyst 137:1210–1219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Réveillon D, Abadie E, Séchet V, Brient L, Savar V, Bardouil M, Hess P, Amzil Z (2014) Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine: LC-MS/MS optimization, screening of cyanobacterial strains and occurrence in shellfish from Thau, a French Mediterranean lagoon. Mar Drugs 12:5441–5467CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rippka R (1988) Isolation and purification of cyanobacteria. In: Packer L, Glazer AN (eds) Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 3–27Google Scholar
- Rosenthal G (1982) Plant nonprotein amino and imino acids: biological, biochemical, and toxicological properties. Academic Press Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Sivonen K, Jones G (1999) Cyanobacterial toxins in: chorus, I, Bartram, J (eds) toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequence, monitoring and management. E&FN Spon, London, pp. 55–124Google Scholar
- Vasconcelos VM (1994) Toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in Portuguese freshwaters. Arch Hydrobiol 130:439–451Google Scholar
- Vasconcelos VM (2001) Freshwater cyanobacteria and their toxins in Portugal. In: Chorus I (ed) Cyanotoxins: occurrence, causes and consequences. Springer, New York, pp. 62–67Google Scholar