Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 595–605 | Cite as

Systematic evaluation of sample preparation method for simultaneous voltammetric determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu in macroalgae

  • Leandro S. Almeida
  • Nivia Streit
  • Daniel Costa
  • Elisa R. Seus
  • Carlos F. F. Andrade
  • Claudio M. P. Pereira
  • Pio Colepicolo
  • Daiane DiasEmail author


In this paper, four mineralization procedures of macroalgae were evaluated. Two methods used a closed system microwave) and two an open system (strong acid and ultraviolet radiation). Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu were determined by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) was used as comparative method. Determinations of total, inorganic, and organic carbon, as well as the study of matrix effect, were performed. It could be observed that, although mineralizations accomplished with open systems presented lower levels of total carbon and lower matrix effect, the determinations of compounds from standard reference material (SRM) did not show acceptable recoveries. However, the mineralization using microwave (closed system—methods A and B) showed recovery within the acceptable range to all compounds (78 to 115 %), and after statistical analysis, it can be concluded that the method A is more accurate than the method B; therefore, most suitable for macroalgae mineralization and simultaneous determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu by voltammetry.


Metals Macroalgae Mineralization Carbon total concentration Matrix effects Voltammetry 



The researchers gratefully acknowledge the financial support to the Brazilian Foundations FAPERGS, FAPESP and CNPq (ProAntar n° 407588/2013-2).

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by CNPq (ProAntar n° 407588/2013–2).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leandro S. Almeida
    • 1
  • Nivia Streit
    • 1
  • Daniel Costa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elisa R. Seus
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carlos F. F. Andrade
    • 2
  • Claudio M. P. Pereira
    • 3
  • Pio Colepicolo
    • 4
  • Daiane Dias
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Escola de Química e AlimentosUniversidade Federal do Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de OceanografiaUniversidade Federal do Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil
  3. 3.Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de AlimentosUniversidade Federal de PelotasCapão do LeãoBrazil
  4. 4.Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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