Antifungal activity of carrageenan extracts from the red alga Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus
- 308 Downloads
Carrageenans extracted from Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus were studied in order to determine their potential antifungal activity. FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence of a hybrid kappa/iota carrageenan belonging to the gametophyte phase and a hybrid xi/theta carrageenan in the tetrasporophyte phase. Kappa/iota and xi/theta carrageenan induced the formation of swollen hyphal segments in Alternaria infectoria, upon exposure to 125 and 60 μg mL−1, respectively. The observed phenotype was similar to those induced by antifungals targeting the fungal cell wall. When exposed to 87.5 μg mL−1 of kappa/iota carrageenan, Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae became shortened and highly branched, a phenotype commonly observed in response to antifungals. These morphological alterations were associated with a decrease of the β-glucan content in A. infectoria after exposure to 150 μg mL−1 of kappa/iota and to 100 μg mL−1 of xi/theta carrageenan. On the other hand, the chitin cell wall content of A. fumigatus decreased significantly upon exposure to 150 μg mL−1 of both extracts, which triggered an increase in the content of β-glucan. Overall, the present work shows that carrageenans extracted from C. teedei var. lusitanicus cause alterations on the A. fumigatus and A. infectoria cell walls, indicating a marked antifungal activity.
KeywordsChondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus Rhodophyta-carrageenan Antifungal Chitin Glucan Vibrational spectroscopy
We thank Prof. P. Ribeiro-Claro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, for FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.
This study was partly supported by FEDER funds through the Operational Programme Competitiveness Factors-COMPETE and national funds by FCT-Foundation for Science and Technology under the strategic project UID/NEU/04539/2013. C. Fernandes is a recipient of a postdoctoral fellowship from FCT-Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (SFRH/BPD/63733/2009). The authors also acknowledge financial support from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology through Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE).
F. Soares performed the experimental work and wrote part of the manuscript; C. Fernandes collaborated, designed, and supervised the lab work and revised the manuscript; P. Silva collaborated and set up most of the lab techniques; L. Pereira designed part of the study and revised the data and the manuscript; T. Gonçalves designed part of the study, antifungal data interpretation, and manuscript revision.
- Anjos J, Fernandes C, Silva BM, Quintas C, Abrunheiro A, Gow NAR, Gonçalves T (2012) β(1,3)-Glucan synthase complex from Alternaria infectoria, a rare dematiaceous human pathogen. Med Mycol 50:716–725Google Scholar
- Bhakuni DS, Rawat DS (2005) Bioactive marine natural products. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
- Braga MRA (1985) Taxonomia e biologia da Gigartina teedii (Roth) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) no litoral do estado de São Paulo. Dissertation, Univ. São PauloGoogle Scholar
- Braga MRA (1990) Reproductive characteristics of Gigartina teedii (Roth) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), a turf-forming species - Field and laboratory culture studies. Bot Mar 33:401–409Google Scholar
- Gayral P (1982) Les algues de côtes Françaises (Manche & Atlantique). Éditions Doin: 21–29Google Scholar
- Hajjeh RA, Sofair AN, Harrison LH, Lyon GM, Arthington-Skaggs BA, Mirza SA, Phelan M, Morgan J, Lee-Yang MA, Ciblak LE et al (2004) Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program. J Clin Microbiol 42:1519–1527CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mayer AMS, Rodríguez AD, Berlinck RGS, Hamann MT (2007) Marine pharmacology in 2003–4: marine compounds with anthelmintic antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action. Comp Biochem Physiol C 145:553–581Google Scholar
- McCandless EL, West JA, Guiry MD (1982) Carrageenan patterns in the Phyllophoraceae. Biochem Syst Biol 10:275–84Google Scholar
- Mirza SA, Phelan M, Rimland D, Graviss E, Hamill R, Brandt ME, Gardner T, Sattah M, Ponce de Leon G, Baughman W, Hajjeh RA (2003) The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992–2000. Clin Infect Dis 36:789–794CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Munro CA, Winter K, Buchan A, Henry K, Becker JM, Brown AJ, Bulawa CE, Gow NA (2001) Chs1 of Candida albicans is an essential chitin synthase required for synthesis of the septum and for cell integrity. Mol Microbiol 39:1414–1426Google Scholar
- Murray PM, Moane S, Collins C, Beletskaya T, Thomas OP, Duarte AWF, Nobre FS, Owoyemi IO, Pagnocca FC, Sette LD, McHugh E, Causse E, Pérez-López P, Feijoo G, Moreira MT, Rubiolo J, Leirós M, Botana LM, Pinteus S, Alves C, Horta A, Pedrosa R, Jeffryes C, Agathos SN, Allewaert C, Verween A, Vyverman W, Laptev I, Sineoky S, Bisio A, Manconi R, Ledda F, Marchi M, Pronzato R, Walsh DJ (2013) Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin. Nat Biotechnol 30:839–850Google Scholar
- Muszkieta L, Aimanianda V, Mellado E, Gribaldo S, Alcàzar-Fuoli L, Szewczyk E, Prevost MC, Latgé JP (2014) Deciphering the role of the chitin synthase families 1 and 2 in the in vivo and in vitro growth of Aspergillus fumigatus by multiple gene targeting deletion. Cell Microbiol 16:1784–1805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Patel S (2012) Therapeutic importance of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds: updating the recent findings. Biotech 3(2):171–185Google Scholar
- Pereira L (2004) Estudos em macroalgas carragenófitas (Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae) da costa portuguesa—aspectos ecológicos, bioquímicos e citológicos. Dissertation, University of CoimbraGoogle Scholar
- Pereira L (2006) Identification of phycocolloids by vibrational spectroscopy. In: Critchley AT, Ohno M, Largo DB (Eds) World seaweed resources—an authoritative reference system. ETI Information Services LtdGoogle Scholar
- Pereira L (2012) Cytological and cytochemical aspects in selected carrageenophytes (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). In: K. Heimann and C. Katsaros (eds) Advances in Algal Cell Biology. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp 81–104Google Scholar
- Pereira L, van de Velde F, Mesquita JF (2007) Cytochemical studies on underutilized carrageenophytes (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). BIBIEN 1:1–5Google Scholar
- Perez R, Kaas R, Campello F, Arbault S, Baarbaroux O (1992) La Culture des algues marines dans le monde. IFREMER, PlouzaneGoogle Scholar
- Rudolph B (2000) Seaweed products: red algae of economic significance. In: Martin RE (ed) Marine & freshwater products handbook. Technomic Pub Co, Lancaster, pp 515–529Google Scholar
- Stanley NF (1987) Production, properties and use of carrageenans. In: McHugh DJ (ed) Production and utilization of products from commercial seaweeds. FAO, Rome, pp 97–147Google Scholar
- Verwer PEB, van Duijn ML, Tavakol M, Bakker-Woudenberg IAJM, van de Sande WWJ (2012) Reshuffling of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall components chitin and β-glucan under the influence of caspofungin or nikkomycin Z alone or in combination. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1595–1598CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Yermak IM, Khotimchenko YS (2003) In: Fingerman M, Nagabhushanam R (eds). Recent advances in marine biotechnology. Science Publishers: Enfield. pp 207–255Google Scholar