Comprehensive quantification and genome survey reveal the presence of novel phytohormone action modes in red seaweeds
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Emerging work has suggested the existence of phytohormones in seaweeds, although chemical species, endogenous biosynthetic pathways, and signal transduction machineries remain poorly understood. We performed profiling of nine phytohormones with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and in silico genome-wide homology search to identify genes involved in biosynthesis and signal transduction of hormones in red algae. It was demonstrated that two Bangiophycean algae, Bangia fuscopurpurea and Pyropia yezoensis, possessed indoleacetic acid (IAA), N 6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP), abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid, although trans-zeatin, dihydrozeatin, gibberellin A1 and A4, and jasmonate were not detected. Results of genome-wide survey demonstrated that Bangiophycean algae produce iP and ABA via pathways similar to those in terrestrial plants. However, these seaweeds lack homologues of already known factors participating in perception and signal transduction of IAA, iP, ABA and SA, indicating that the action modes of these phytohormones in red seaweeds differ from those elucidated in terrestrial plants. These findings shed lights on evolutional divergence of signal transduction pathways of phytohormones in plants.
KeywordsBangia fuscopurpurea Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Phytohormone Pyropia yezoensis Quantitative profiling Comparative genomics
We are grateful to the Marine Resources Research Center of Aichi Fisheries Research Institute for kindly providing P. yezoensis strain U51. The hormone analysis reported herein was supported by the Japan Advanced Plant Science Network. This work was also supported in part by the Joint Research Program implemented at the Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Japan, and KAKENHI Grants (Nos. 2566016003 and 15H04539 to K.M.).
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