Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 2061–2071 | Cite as

Diets supplemented with seaweed affect metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses, but not individual growth rate in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

  • Maria J. Peixoto
  • Jon C. Svendsen
  • Hans Malte
  • Luis F. Pereira
  • Pedro Carvalho
  • Rui Pereira
  • José F. M. Gonçalves
  • Rodrigo O. A. Ozório


This study investigated the effects of seaweed dietary supplementation on measures of fish performance including aerobic metabolism, digestive enzymes activity, innate immune status, oxidative damage, and growth rate using European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were fed for 49 days with three different diets: a control diet (CTRL), a Gracilaria-supplemented diet (GR7.5), and a mixed diet (Mix) composed of Gracilaria, Fucus, and Ulva genera representatives. All diets were isoenergetic (22 kJ g−1 adjusted for dry matter (DM)), isoproteic (47 %DM), and isolipidic (18 %DM) and tested in triplicate groups of 20 fish (initial body weight 25.5 ± 4.1 g). Final results showed similar growth rates and digestive activities between diets. Maximum and standard metabolic rates and aerobic metabolic scope revealed comparable results for the three diets. In contrast, fish fed with GR7.5 exhibited elevated routine metabolic rate (190.7 mg O2 kg−1 h−1). Fish fed with the GR7.5 and Mix diets had lower alternative complement pathway (ACH50) (62.5 and 63 units mL−1 respectively) than CTRL (84 units mL−1) GR7.5 increased lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase levels, as well as glutathione s-transferase activity. Mix diet increased glutathione reductase activity when compared to CTRL. Collectively, our findings suggest that dietary seaweed supplementation may alter seabass metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses without compromising growth parameters.


Digestive enzymes Growth rate Innate immune response Metabolic rate Oxidative stress Seaweeds 



This study was carried out under the project SEABIOPLAS (grant agreement n° 606032), funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), as well as partially supported by the Strategic Funding UID/Multi/04423/2013 through national funds provided by Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), in the framework of the program PT2020. The research was also supported by a grant (SFRH/BPD/89473/2012) from the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) in Portugal to Jon C. Svendsen. We thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive and helpful comments on the earlier versions of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria J. Peixoto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jon C. Svendsen
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Hans Malte
    • 5
  • Luis F. Pereira
    • 1
  • Pedro Carvalho
    • 2
  • Rui Pereira
    • 6
  • José F. M. Gonçalves
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rodrigo O. A. Ozório
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CIIMAR – Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e AmbientalUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.ICBAS – Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel SalazarUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Section for Freshwater Fisheries and EcologyTechnical University of DenmarkSilkeborgDenmark
  4. 4.National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Section for Ecosystem Based Marine ManagementTechnical University of DenmarkCharlottenlundDenmark
  5. 5.Department of Bioscience, ZoophysiologyAarhus UniversityAarhus CDenmark
  6. 6.ALGAPlus, LdaÍlhavoPortugal

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