Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 1011–1021 | Cite as

Marine microalgae Pavlova viridis and Nannochloropsis sp. as n-3 PUFA source in diets for juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

  • S. HaasEmail author
  • J. L. Bauer
  • A. Adakli
  • S. Meyer
  • S. Lippemeier
  • K. Schwarz
  • C. Schulz


In the present study, the potential of the microalga Pavlova viridis (=Diacronema viridis) as an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) source was evaluated and compared to Nannochloropsis sp. in diets for juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) (initial weight ~12.8 ± 1.7 g) in an 8-week feeding trial. Six different isoenergetic and isonitrogenous test diets were used: (1) fish oil diet (FO), major lipid source fish oil (100 %), (2) basal diet, 40 % fish oil and 60 % plant oil (in equal parts rapeseed, sunflower, and linseed oil), (3) Pavlova 50 % (P50), 50 % of the fish oil of the basal diet was substituted by lipid content of P. viridis meal, (4) Pavlova 100 % (P100), 100 % of the fish oil of the basal diet was substituted by lipid content of P. viridis meal, (5) Nannochloropsis 50 % (N50), 50 % of the fish oil of the basal diet was substituted by lipid content of Nannochloropsis sp. meal, and (6) Nannochloropsis 100 % (N100), 100 % of the fish oil of the basal diet was substituted by lipid content of Nannochloropsis sp. meal. The specific growth rate was highest and feed conversion ratio was lowest in the P100 group (SGR 1.77 ± 0.10 % day−1; FCR 1.17 ± 0.01), although not significantly different to the results for the FO and the other algae-groups. Furthermore, the sum of PUFA was also highest in the P100 group, followed by the P50, N100, N50, and B group (mainly due to the high content of linoleic and linolenic acids coming from plant oils and microalgal products) with the lowest levels in the FO group. The highest amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of total fatty acids were found in the FO and B group, although not significantly higher than in groups P50 and P100. The significantly highest amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, % of total fatty acids) was in the P100 samples and the lowest amount was in samples of the basal group. The histological analyses of liver and intestine samples did not reveal any negative effects caused by the experimental treatments. Based on the basal diet, a 50 % fish oil replacement by Nannochloropsis sp. meal and a total replacement by P. viridis meal were possible without negative effects on the growth performance and nutrient utilization of juvenile sea bass.


Fish feed Polyunsaturated fatty acids Microalgae Pavlova Nannochloropsis 



This work was funded by the DBU-Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt under grant agreement no. AZ 28183. The experiments were carried out according to the national regulations of animal welfare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Haas
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • J. L. Bauer
    • 2
  • A. Adakli
    • 3
  • S. Meyer
    • 1
  • S. Lippemeier
    • 4
  • K. Schwarz
    • 2
  • C. Schulz
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.GMA – Gesellschaft für Marine Aquakultur mbHBüsumGermany
  2. 2.Department of Food Technology, Institute of Human Nutrition and Food ScienceChristian-Albrechts-UniversityKielGermany
  3. 3.Fisheries Faculty, Department AquacultureCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey
  4. 4.BlueBioTech GmbHBüsumGermany
  5. 5.Institute of Animal Breeding and HusbandryChristian-Albrechts-UniversityKielGermany

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