Advertisement

Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 1535–1540 | Cite as

From Sir Joseph Banks to the world’s seaweed colloid industry: the discovery of original material and typification of the marine red alga Gloiopeltis tenax

  • Juliet BrodieEmail author
  • George D. Fussey
  • Jo Wilbraham
  • Michael D. Guiry
Article

Abstract

Specimens of a seaweed sent to Sir Joseph Banks in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century by a collector in China were described as a new species, Fucus tenax, by the English botanist and antiquarian Dawson Turner. This seaweed has been extensively used in Japan, China and Korea as a source of glue and gum and has been more recently employed in a wide range of specialised applications, including the conservation of antiquarian objects. Banks raised with Turner the possibility that similar species in Britain could be used for the extraction of ‘gelatine’. This was a very early recognition of the potential use of marine phycocolloids from seaweeds and ultimately led to a marine hydrocolloid industry with projected wholesale sales in excess of US$1.56 billion in 2014. Specimens of Fucus tenax Turner [the generitype of Gloiopeltis J. Agardh, now Gloiopeltis tenax (Turner) J. Agardh] discovered in the Natural History Museum, London (BM), and the Eton College Natural History Museum (ECNHM) are considered to be the material upon which the descriptions and illustrations published by Turner (Ann Bot 2:376–378, 1806; Typis J 2:72–134, 1808–1809) were based, and a lectotype (BM) and provisional isolectotypes (ECNHM) are designated here to facilitate future molecular studies of species of the genus.

Keywords

Dawson Turner Fucus tenax Funoran Gloiopeltis tenax Hydrocolloid industry Isolectotype Lectotype Marine phycocolloids Sir Joseph Banks 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Dr. Harris J. ‘Pete’ Bixler (Ingredients Solutions Inc.) for the information in Table 1 on the production and sales of seaweed colloids; Professor Hiroshi Kawai (Kobe University, Japan) for information on unpublished data on the species of Gloiopeltis; Sir Michael Dixon for his ongoing advice regarding the ECNHM Collection; Dr. David Smith, Rebecca Tessier and Roddy Fisher for their work on the ECNHM herbarium and the online catalogue http://collections.etoncollege.com/home; and Dr. Neil Chambers, Executive Director of the Sir Joseph Banks Archive Project, for his suggestion concerning William Kerr.

References

  1. Agardh JG (1842) Algae maris Mediterranei et Adriatici, observationes in diagnosin specierum et dispositionem generum. pp. [i]-x, 1-164. Apud Fortin, Masson et Cie, Parisiis [Paris]Google Scholar
  2. Arasaki S, Arasaki T (1983) Low calorie, high nutrition vegetables from the sea. To help you look and feel better. pp. [1]-196. Japan Publications, Inc., TokyoGoogle Scholar
  3. Bangmei X (2004) Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus II Rhodophyta No. III Gelidiales Cryptonemiales Hildenbrandiales. pp. [i]-xxi, 1-203, pls I-XIII. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  4. Carter HB (1988) Sir Joseph Banks 1743–1820. [i]-xi, [1]-671. British Museum (Natural History), LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Chapman VJ, Chapman DJ (1980) Seaweeds and their uses. pp. [i-iv]. v-ix[x], 1-334. Chapman & Hall, London & New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Dawson WR (1961) A bibliography of the printed works of Dawson Turner. Trans Camb Bibl Soc 3:232–256Google Scholar
  7. Decaisne J (1842) Essais sur une classification des algues et des polypiers calcifères de Lamouroux. Ann Sci Nat, Bot, Seconde série 17:297-380, pls 14-17Google Scholar
  8. Fussey GD, Sainsbury DW, Smith DASS (2006) The William Hincks herbarium at Eton College: botany in early nineteenth century Yorkshire. Nat 131:23–35Google Scholar
  9. Geiger T, Michel F (2005) Studies on the polysaccharide JunFunori used to consolidate matt paint. Stud Conserv 50:193–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guiry MD, Guiry GM (2014) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 28 August 2014
  11. Hirase S, Watanabe K (1972) Fractionation and structural investigation of funoran. Proc Int Seaweed Symp 7:451–454Google Scholar
  12. Hirase S, Araki C, Ito T (1956) Constituents of the mucilage of Gloiopeltis Furcata. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 29:985–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klochkova NG, Korolyova TN, Kusidi AE (2009) [Atlas of marine algae of Kamchatka and surrounding areas. Vol. 2. Red seaweeds]. pp. 1-301. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: KamchatNIRO Press [In Russian.]Google Scholar
  14. Madlener JC (1977) The sea vegetable book. C.N. Potter/Crown Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. McNeill J, Barrie FR, Buck WR, Demoulin V, Greuter W, Hawksworth DL, Herendeen PS, Knapp S, Prado J, Prud’homme van Reine WF, Smith GF, Wiersema JH, Turland NJ (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 Regnum Vegetabile, vol 154. pp. [i]-xxx, 1–208. Koeltz Scientific Books, KönigsteinGoogle Scholar
  16. Mitchell ME, Guiry MD (1983) Carrageen: a local habitation or a name. J Ethnopharmacol 9:347–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Natural History Museum Archives (2014) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/library/archives/catalogue/ Searched 6 August 2014
  18. Perestenko LP (1980) Vodorosli Zaliva Petra Velikogo [The seaweeds of Peter the Great Bay]. pp. 1-232. Akademia NAUKA SSSR. Dal., LeningradGoogle Scholar
  19. Price JH (1982) Publication in parts: a background to the concept, efficacy and taxonomic complexity. Arch Nat Hist 10:443–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Price JH (1984) Bibliographic notes on works concerning the algae V. A note on aspects of the Fuci… (Dawson Turner, 1807–1819). Arch Nat Hist 11:440–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Richardson G (2002) A Norfolk network within the Royal Society. Notes Rec of Roy Soc 56(1):27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sand RE, Glicksman M (1973) Seaweed extracts of potential economic importance. In: Whistler RL (ed) Industrial gums: polysaccharides and their derivatives. Academic Press, Inc, New York, pp 147–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Silva PC, Meñez EG, Moe RL (1987) Catalog of the benthic marine algae of the Philippines. Smithsonian Contrib Mar Sci 27:1–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Suringar WFR (1870) Algae japonicae Musei botanici lugduno-batavi. pp. [1]-39, expl. pl., pls I-XXIV. Harlemi [Harlem]: Typis Heredum LoosjesGoogle Scholar
  25. Swider JP, Smith M (2005) Funori, overview of a 300-year-old consolidant. J Am Inst Conserv 44:117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Takano R, Hayashi K, Hara HS (1995) Funoran from the red seaweed, Gloiopeltis complanata: polysaccharides with sulphated agarose structure and their precursor structure. Carbohydr Polym 27:305–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tseng CK (1933) Gloiopeltis and other economic seaweeds of Amoy, China. Lingnan Sci J 12(1):43–63, 3 platesGoogle Scholar
  28. Turner D (1806) Account of a new interesting species of Fucus. Ann Bot 2:376–378Google Scholar
  29. Turner D (1808-1809). Fuci sive plantarum fucorum generi a botanicis ascriptarum icones descriptiones et historia. Fuci, or coloured figures and descriptions of the plants referred by botanists to the genus Fucus. Vol. 2 pp. [i], [1]-164, [1-2], pl. 72-134 (col. copp. W.J. Hooker). Londini [London]: Typis J. M’Creery, impensis J. et A. Arch. Note: Even though the title page give the year as “1809” this work was issued in fascicles (parts), details of which are incomplete or questionable (see Price 1982, 1984)Google Scholar
  30. Tuvikene R, Robal M, Fujita D, Saluri K, Truus K, Tashiro Y, Ogawa H, Matsukawa S (2014) Funorans from Gloiopeltis species. Part I. Extraction and structural characteristics. Food Hydrocolloids 43:481-492. doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.07.010
  31. Wang MJ, Chang W-J, Lee S-Y, Sheu J-R, Teng NC (2014) The effects of funoran-containing xylitol chewing gum on dental plaque. J Polym Eng 34:203–208Google Scholar
  32. Wynne MJ (2003) Phycological trailblazer no. 19. Dawson Turner. Phycol News 39:5–7Google Scholar
  33. Yasunaga H, Koga R, Takano R, Kajiwara K, Urakawa H (2006) Interference with chemical crosslinking of sulfated polysaccharides by sulfuric acid groups of polysaccharide chain. Sen’i Gakkaishi 62(12):293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yoshida T (1998) Marine algae of Japan, pp. [1-2], 1-25, 1-1222. Uchida Rokakuho Publishing, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  35. Yu G, Hu Y, Yang B, Zhao X, Wang P, Ji G, Wu J, Guan H (2010) Extraction, isolation and structural characterization of polysaccharides from a red alga Gloiopeltis furcata. J Ocean Univ China 9:193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zheng J, Chen Y, Chen W, Shi G (2012) Chemical composition and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities in supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extract of Gloiopeltis tenax. Mar Drugs 10:2634–2647PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juliet Brodie
    • 1
    Email author
  • George D. Fussey
    • 2
  • Jo Wilbraham
    • 1
  • Michael D. Guiry
    • 3
  1. 1.Natural History MuseumDepartment of Life Sciences LondonUK
  2. 2.Natural History MuseumEton CollegeWindsorUK
  3. 3.AlgaeBase, Ryan InstituteNational University of Ireland, GalwayGalwayIreland

Personalised recommendations