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Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 2367–2378 | Cite as

Algicidal effects of yellow clay and the thiazolidinedione derivative TD49 on the fish-killing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in microcosm experiments

  • Seung Ho Baek
  • Kyoungsoon Shin
  • Moonho Son
  • Si Woo Bae
  • Hoon Cho
  • Dong Hee Na
  • Young Ok Kim
  • Si Wouk Kim
Article

Abstract

In order to evaluate the potential to control the fish-killing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides, we compared the algicidal effects of the thiazolidinedione derivative TD49 with those of yellow clay in 10-L microcosms. The responses of higher trophic level marine organisms and microbial loop communities to the algicide were also evaluated. In the yellow clay treatments, the concentration of C. polykrikoides was slightly reduced at day 1 of the experiment but remained higher than that of the control, suggesting that the reduction ratio of C. polykrikoides was <20 %. In the 0.8-μM TD49 treatment, the abundance of C. polykrikoides declined by 98 % 1 day following the addition of the algicide. The algicide did not affect nontarget algae including Chaetoceros spp., Skeletonema spp., Cylindrotheca spp., and other species. In all microcosms, bacterial abundance increased abruptly after day 1, then declined over the next 2 days as a result of predation by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and the small protozoan Uronema sp. Predation by the large protozoan species Euplotes sp. on Uronema sp. gradually increased with increasing incubation time in the TD49 treatment. Zooplankton were particularly affected by the environmental changes that occurred in the microcosms following collapse of the C. polykrikoides populations. Striped beak perch were not affected by the yellow clay treatments and concentrations of TD49 < 2.0 μM. The results suggested that the yellow clay has little effect on C. polykrikoides, whereas the algicide TD49 is effective in controlling the harmful alga. The results imply that the algicide has positive effects on natural microbial communities and is not toxic to nonharmful algae and higher trophic level marine organisms.

Keywords

Clay Chemical algicide Microbial loop Cochlodinium polykrikoides Fish 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Pioneer Research Center Program through the National Research Program of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (grant no. M1071118001-08 M1118-00110) and KIOST projects (PE99191).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seung Ho Baek
    • 1
  • Kyoungsoon Shin
    • 1
  • Moonho Son
    • 1
  • Si Woo Bae
    • 1
  • Hoon Cho
    • 2
  • Dong Hee Na
    • 3
  • Young Ok Kim
    • 1
  • Si Wouk Kim
    • 4
  1. 1.Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST)/South Sea InstituteGeojeKorea
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, Pioneer Research Center for Controlling of Harmful Algal BloomChosun UniversityGwangjuKorea
  3. 3.College of PharmacyKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Polymer Science and EngineeringChosun UniversityGwangjuKorea

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