Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 2357–2365 | Cite as

Effects of the algicides CuSO4 and NaOCl on various physiological parameters in the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides

  • Vinitha Ebenezer
  • Wol Ae Lim
  • Jang-Seu Ki


The marine dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides has spread worldwide and is responsible for harmful algal blooms. The chemical biocides, copper sulfate (CuSO4) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), are known to be effective in removing bloom-forming or biofouling organisms. Here, we assessed the biocidal efficiency and toxicological properties of NaOCl and CuSO4 on the physiological and catalase responses of C. polykrikoides. The endpoints used were cell counts, pigment content, chlorophyll autofluorescence (CAF), and antioxidant catalase (CAT) activity. The test organism showed a dose-dependent decrease in growth rate against the algicides; 72-h median effective concentrations (EC50) were 0.584 and 0.633 mg L–1 for NaOCl and CuSO4, respectively. The decrease in pigment levels and CAF intensity showed that NaOCl and CuSO4 might affect the photosynthetic processes of the exposed cells. Furthermore, a considerable increase in CAT activity in the cells was detected, indicating that the algicides might generate reactive oxygen species, thereby markedly damaging the cells. These results suggest that the test algicides are very effective in removing C. polykrikoides by inducing cellular stress and inhibiting cell recovery at higher concentrations.


Algicide Cochlodinium polykrikoides Copper sulfate Harmful algal bloom Sodium hypochlorite 



This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (nos. 2012-0001741, 2013-044476), a grant from the National Fisheries Research and Development (NFRDI) funded to J.-S. Ki, and a 2014 Research Grant from Sangmyung University.

Supplementary material

10811_2014_267_MOESM1_ESM.ppt (492 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 Variation in chlorophyll autoflourescence in C. polykrikoides after 6 and 72 h exposure to algicides NaOCl (upper panel) and CuSO4 (lower panel). Scale = 20 μm. (PPT 491 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Life ScienceSangmyung UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Fishery and Ocean Information DivisionNational Fisheries Research & Development InstituteBusanSouth Korea

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