An ELIP-like gene in the freshwater green alga, Spirogyra varians (Zygnematales), is regulated by cold stress and CO2 influx
- 443 Downloads
A cold-stress responsive protein was isolated from the freshwater alga Spirogyra varians and named SVCR1 (S. varians cold responsive protein). The protein was detected by comparing the protein profiles of plants grown at two different temperatures, 4 °C and 20 °C. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that expression of the protein was reversibly regulated by cold stress. The full cDNA sequence of the protein was obtained using degenerate primers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with early light-inducible proteins (ELIPs), a group of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins that are induced by high light stress in higher plants. The expression of svcr1 (S. varians cold responsive gene) responded more sensitively to cold than to high light. At temperatures over 10 °C, svcr1 was seldom expressed until light intensity reached 1,200 μmol photons m−2 s−1. At 4 °C, it was greatly up-regulated even in the dark. A sharp increase of svcr1 expression was observed when the algae were exposed to UV-A light for 1 h regardless of temperature. The addition of 5 % CO2 to the algal culture medium suppressed the expression of svcr1. The transcripts of svcr1 began to disappear as soon as 5 % CO2 was introduced to plants grown in the cold. The photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m and non-photochemical quenching induction) was measured at 4 °C and 20 °C using PAM. The decreased photosynthetic efficiency at 4 °C was recovered close to that of 20 °C when the 5 % CO2 was provided. These results suggest that the elevated carbon level in the solution may mitigate oxidative stress in photosystem caused by cold stress. The recovered photosynthetic efficiency with CO2 influx at 4 °C supported this hypothesis.
KeywordsAlgae Biofuel Cold stress CO2 ELIP Photosynthesis Spirogyra
We express our sincere thanks to Drs. G.C. Zuccarello, Q. Hu and T.A. Klochkova for the careful revision of the manuscript and useful comments. This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF 20120006718). This research was also a part of the project titled “Long-term change of structure and function in marine ecosystems of Korea” funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, Korea.
- Adamska I (2001) The ELIP family of stress proteins in the thylakoid membranes of Pro- and Eukaryota. In: Aro EM, Andersson B (eds) Advances in photosynthesis and respiration–regulation of photosynthesis, Vol 11. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 487–505Google Scholar
- Banet G, Pick U, Malkin S, Zamir A (1999) Differential responses to different light spectral ranges of violaxanthin de-epoxidation and accumulation of Cbr, an algal homologue of plant early light inducible proteins, in two strains of Dunaliella. Plant Physiol Biochem 37:875–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Batels D, Hanke C, Schneider K, Michel D, Salamini F (1992) A desiccation-related Elip-like gene from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum is regulated by light and ABA. EMBO J 11:2771–2778Google Scholar
- Bischoff H, Bold HC (1963) Phycological studies: IV. Some soil algae from Enchanted Rock and related algal species. Univ Tex Publ No 6318Google Scholar
- Chen P, Min M, Chen Y, Wang L, Li Y, Chen Q, Wang C, Wan Y, Wang X, Cheng Y, Deng S, Hennessy K, Lin X, Liu Y, Wang Y, Martinez B, Ruan R (2009) Review of the biological and engineering aspects of algae to fuels approach. Int J Agric Biol Eng 2:1–30Google Scholar
- Hossain ABMS, Saleh AA, Aishah S, Boyce AN, Chowdhury PP, Naqiuddin M (2008) Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes biomass as a renewable bioenergy resource in biomaterials. In: Osman NAA, Ibrahim F, Abas WA B.W, Rahman HSA, Ting HN (eds) Biomed Proceedings 21:300–305Google Scholar
- Montané M-H, Dreyer S, Kloppstech K (1996) Post-translational stabilization of ELIPs and regulation of other light-stress genes under prolonged light-and cold stress in barley. In: Grillo S, Leone A (eds) Physical stresses in plants: genes and their products for tolerance. Springer, Berlin, pp 210–220Google Scholar
- Montané M-H, Tardy F, Kloppstech K, Havaux M (1998) Differential control of xanthophylls and light-induced stress proteins, as opposed to light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins, during photosynthetic acclimation of barley leaves to light irradiance. Plant Physiol 118:227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seki M, Narusaka M, Ishida J, Nanjo T, Fujita M, Oono Y, Kamiya A, Nakajima M, Enju A, Sakurai T, Satou M, Akiyama K, Taji T, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Carninci P, Kawai J, Hayashizaki Y, Shinozaki K (2002) Monitoring the expression profiles of 7000 Arabidopsis genes under drought, cold and high salinity stresses using a full length cDNA microarray. Plant J 31:279–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ueda R, Hirayama S, Sugata K, Nakayama H (1996) Process for the production of ethanol from microalgae. USA Patent 5578472Google Scholar
- Wong CE, Li Y, Labbe A, Guevara D, Nuin P, Whitty B, Diaz C, Golding GB, Gray GR, Weretilnyk EA, Griffith M, Moffatt BA (2006) Transcriptional profiling implicates novel interactions between abiotic stress and hormonal responses in Thellungiella, a close relative of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 140:1437–1450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar