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Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1189–1198 | Cite as

Structural diversity and geographical distribution of halogenated secondary metabolites in red algae, Laurencia nangii Masuda (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales), in the coastal waters of North Borneo Island

  • Charles S. Vairappan
  • Intan Irna Zanil
  • Takashi Kamada
Article

Abstract

The red algae genus Laurencia (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales) is known as a prolific producer of halogenated secondary metabolites with a high level of species diversity and geographical distribution. In North Borneo Island, Malaysia, there are four main Laurencia species: Laurencia snackeyi, Laurencia majuscula, Laurencia similis and L. nangii. Although the chemistry of Laurencia is well studied, the diversity of compounds in L. nangii has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we studied the chemical constituents of seven populations of L. nangii from Tunku Abdul Rahman Marine Park (two populations), Dinawan Island (one population), Tun Mustapha Marine Park (two populations) and Tun Sakaran Marine Park (two populations). Halogenated compounds were isolated and the structures determined via spectroscopic methods. A total of 20 metabolites belonging to the classes of sesquiterpenes, acetylenes, bromoallenes, diterpenes and triterpenes were identified. Populations from Tunku Abdul Rahman Marine Park and Dinawan Island contained non-chamigrane-type sesquiterpenes, acetylenes and diterpenes. Populations from Tun Mustapha Marine Park contained chamigrane-type sesquiterpenes, acetylenes and diterpenes. However, the chemical compositions of populations from Tun Sakaran Marine Park were found to differ significantly, containing chamigrane-type and non-chamigrane-type sesquiterpenes, bromoallenes and triterpenes. This investigation has revealed the presence of interesting chemotaxonomical markers in populations of L. nangii and the existence of chemical races in this species.

Keywords

Red algae Laurencia nangii North Borneo Island Halogenated metabolites Chemotaxonomical markers Chemical race 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank the International Foundation for Science (IFS) and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OCPW) for research grant IFS 4836/2 and Sabah Parks for the research permit and assistance during sample collection.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles S. Vairappan
    • 1
  • Intan Irna Zanil
    • 1
  • Takashi Kamada
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Natural Products Chemistry, Institute for Tropical Biology and ConservationUniversiti Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia

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