Abscisic acid, gibberellins and brassinosteroids in Kelpak®, a commercial seaweed extract made from Ecklonia maxima
- 1.2k Downloads
The seaweed extract Kelpak® made from the kelp Ecklonia maxima is registered as a biostimulant for use in agriculture. It elicits many beneficial responses including improved root and shoot growth, higher yields and greater resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Previously, cytokinins, auxins and polyamines were identified in Kelpak®. The aim of the present study was to quantify other groups of plant growth regulators (PGRs)—abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids—that may be present in E. maxima and Kelpak®. Kelpak® samples harvested between 2008 and 2010 and stored for up to 26 months were analysed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. ABA levels were below the limits of detection in E. maxima but were detected in low concentrations in Kelpak®, ranging from 0.31 to 20.70 pg mL−1 Kelpak®. Eighteen GAs were found in E. maxima and Kelpak® with concentrations from 187.54 to 565.96 pg mL−1 Kelpak®. The biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA5, GA6 and GA7) comprised less than 3 % in Kelpak®. Although GA13 (a final product in the metabolic pathway) was present in low concentrations in E. maxima, very high concentrations were present in Kelpak®. The brassinosteroids brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS) were identified in E. maxima and Kelpak®. Concentrations varied with harvest and storage time, ranging from 384.72 to 793.23 pg BL mL−1 Kelpak® and 62.84 to 567.51 pg CS mL−1 Kelpak®. It is likely that this cocktail of natural PGRs present in Kelpak® may act individually or in concert and thus contribute to the numerous favourable physiological responses elicited by Kelpak® application to plants.
KeywordsAbscisic acid Agricultural biostimulant Brassinosteroids Gibberellins Plant growth regulators
Plant growth regulators
Ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
The University of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and Kelp Products (Pty) Ltd are thanked for financial assistance. This work was further supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic [LK21306], the Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research [ED0007/01/01] and the Czech Grant Agency [grant no. 206/09/1284]. The authors also give sincere thanks to M.Sc. Marie Vitásková for her excellent technical assistance.
- Anderson RJ, Bolton JJ, Molloy FJ, Rotmann KWG (2003) Commercial seaweeds in southern Africa. In: Chapman ARO, Anderson RJ, Vreeland VJ, Davison IR (eds) Proceedings of the 17th International Seaweed Symposium. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–12Google Scholar
- Metting B, Zimmerman WJ, Crouch IJ, van Staden J (1990) Agronomic uses of seaweed and microalgae. In: Akatsuka I (ed) Introduction to applied phycology. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 589–627Google Scholar
- Nelson WR, van Staden J (1985) 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in seaweed concentrate. Bot Mar 28:415–417Google Scholar
- Stirk WA, Bálint P, Tarkowská D, Novák O, Strnad M, Ördög V, van Staden J (2013) Hormone profiles in microalgae: gibberellins and brassinosteroids. Plant Physiol Biochem (in press)Google Scholar
- Tanimoto E (2002) Gibberellins. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Kafkafi U (eds) Plant roots—the hidden half. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 405–416Google Scholar