Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 1777–1791 | Cite as

On the human consumption of the red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata (L.) Weber & Mohr)

  • Ole G. Mouritsen
  • Christine Dawczynski
  • Lars Duelund
  • Gerhard Jahreis
  • Walter Vetter
  • Markus Schröder
Article

Abstract

The red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata) is one of the more popular seaweed species for human consumption in the Western world. With a documented historical use up to present days in Ireland, Brittany (France), Iceland, Maine (USA), and Nova Scotia (Canada), it has remained a snack, a food supplement, and an ingredient in various dishes. The trend towards more healthy and basic foodstuffs, together with an increasing interest among chefs for the seaweed cuisine, has posed the need for more quantitative knowledge about the chemical composition of dulse of relevance for human consumption. Here, we report on data for amino acid composition, fatty acid profile, vitamin K, iodine, kainic acid, inorganic arsenic, as well as for various heavy metals in samples from Denmark, Iceland, and Maine.

Keywords

Dulse Palmaria palmata Foodstuff Amino acids Fatty acids Vitamin K Iodine Arsenic Kainic acid Heavy metals 

References

  1. Almela C, Algora S, Benito V, Clemente MJ, Devesa V, Suner MA, Velez D, Montoro R (2002) Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products. J Agric Food Chem 50:918–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arasaki S, Arasaki T (1983) Low calorie, high nutrition vegetables from the sea. Japan Publications Inc., TokyoGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartie W, Madorin P, Ferland G (2001) Seaweed, vitamin K, and warfarin. Amer J Health Syst Pharm 58:2300Google Scholar
  4. Barsanti L, Gualtieri P (2006) Algae. Anatomy, biochemistry, and biotechnology. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  5. Bixler HJ, Porse H (2011) A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry. J Appl Phycol 23:321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Braverman LE (1994) Iodine and the thyroid—33 years of study. Thyroid 4:351–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braune W, Guiry MD (2011) Seaweeds. A.R.G. Gartner, RuggellGoogle Scholar
  8. Burtin P (2003) Nutritional value of seaweeds. Electron J Environ Agric Food Chem 2:498–503Google Scholar
  9. Channing DM, Young GT (1953) Amino acids and peptides. Part X. The nitrogenous constituents of some marine algae. J Chem Soc (London): 2481–2491Google Scholar
  10. Clark RF, Williams SR, Nordt SP, Manoguerra AS (1999) A review of selected seafood poisonings. Undersea Hyperb Med 26:175–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarkson TW, Magos L (2006) The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 36:609–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colombo ML, Risè P, Giavarini F, De Angelis L, Galli C, Bolis CL (2006) Marine macroalgae as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Plant Foods Human Nutr 61:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooksley VG (2007) Seaweed. Nature’s secret balancing your metabolism, fighting disease, and revitalizing body & soul. New York: Stewart, Tabori & ChangGoogle Scholar
  14. Coulson CB (1953) Amino acids of marine algae. Chem Ind (London): 971–972Google Scholar
  15. Coyle JT (1983) Neurotoxic action of kainic acid. J Neurochem 41:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cunanne SC (2005) Survival of the fattest. World Scientific, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cunnane SC, Stewart KM (2010) Human brain evolution. The influence of freshwater and marine food resources. Wiley, New JerseyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dam H, Glavind J (1938) Vitamin K in the plant. Biochem J 32:485–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dawczynski C, Schäfer U, Leiterer M, Jahreis G (2007a) Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products. J Agric Food Chem 55:10470–10475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dawczynski C, Schubert R, Jahreis G (2007b) Amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary fibre in edible seaweed products. Food Chem 103:891–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dillehay TD, Ramírez C, Pino M, Collins MB, Rossen J, Pino-Navarro JD (2008) Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America. Science 320:84–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DRI Report (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Edwards MD, Holdt SL, Hynes S (2011) Algal eating habits of phycologists attending the ISAP Halifax Conference and members of the general public. J Appl Phycol 24:627–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Erhart S, Cerier L (2001) Sea vegetable celebration. Tennessee Book, SummertownGoogle Scholar
  25. EU (2008) Commission Regulation (EC) No 629/2008 of 2 July 2008 amending regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union L173/6-9Google Scholar
  26. FAO (2001) Human vitamin and mineral requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  27. Feldmann J, John K, Pengprecha P (2000) Arsenic metabolism in seaweed-eating sheep from Northern Scotland. Fresenius J Anal Chem 368:116–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fleurence J, Morançais M, Dumay J, Decottignies P, Turpin V, Munier M, Garcia-Bueno N, Jaouen P (2012) What are the prospects for using seaweed in human nutrition and for marine animals raised through aquaculture? Trends Food Sci Technol 27:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Folch J, Lees M, Stanley GHS (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226:497–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Galland-Irmouli AV, Fleurence J, Lamghari R, Luçon M, Rouxel C, Barbaroux O, Bronowicki JP, Villaume C, Guéant JL (1999) Nutritional value of proteins from edible seaweed Palmaria palmata (dulse). J Nutr Biochem 10:353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guiry MD (1978) A concensus and bibliography of Irish seaweeds. Bibl Phycol 44:1–287Google Scholar
  32. Hafting JT, Critchley AT, Scott MLC, Hubley A, Archibald AF (2012) On-land cultivation of functional seaweed products for human usage. J Appl Phycol 24:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holdt SL, Kraan S (2011) Bioactive compounds in seaweed; functional food applications and legislation. J Appl Phycol 23:543–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khotimchenko SV, Vaskovsky VE, Titlyanova TV (2002) Fatty acids of marine algae from the Pacific Coast of North California. Bot Mar 45:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kristjánsson L (1980) Íslenzkir Sjávarhættir I. Bókautgáfa Menningarsjóds, ReykjavíkGoogle Scholar
  36. Laycock MV, Mclnnes AG, Morgan KC (1979) d-homocysteic acid in Palmaria palmata. Phytochem 18:1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laycock MV, de Freitas ASW, Wright JLC (1989) Glutamate agonists from marine algae. J Appl Phycol 1:1573–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Le Gall L, Pien S, Rusig AM (2004) Cultivation of Palmaria palmata (Palmariales, Rhodophyta) from isolated spores in semi-controlled conditions. Aquaculture 229:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewis AAS (2007) Organic versus inorganic arsenic in herbal kelp supplements. Environ Health Perspect 115:A575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lothman EW, Collins RC (1981) Kainic acid induced limbic seizures: metabolic, behavioral, electroencephalographic and neuropathalogical correlates. Brain Res 218:299–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lüning K (2008) Integrated macroalgae-oyster aquaculture on a North Sea island: seasonal productivity of the brown alga Laminaria saccharina and the red algae Palmaria palmata; Solieria chordalis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and the use of these seaweeds in human nutrition or as raw material for the cosmetics industry. 11th International Conference on Applied Phycology, Galway, Ireland. June 22–27Google Scholar
  42. Mabeau S, Fleurence J (1993) Seaweed in food products: biochemical and nutritional aspects. Trends Food Sci Technol 4:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MacArtain P, Gill CIR, Brooks M, Campbell R, Rowland IR (2007) Nutritional value of edible seaweeds. Nutr Rev 65:535–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maderia CJ (2007) The new seaweed cookbook. North Atlantic Books, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  45. Mai K, Mercer JP, Donlon J (1994) Comparative studies on the nutrition of two species of abalone. Haliotis tuberculata L. and Haliotis discus Hannai Ino. II. Amino acid composition of abalone and six species of macroalgae with an assessment of their nutritional-value. Aquaculture 128:115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martínez B, Viejo RM, Rico JM, Rødde RH, Faes VA, Oliveros J, Álvarez D (2006) Open sea cultivation of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) on the northern Spanish coast. Aquaculture 254:376–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Michanek G (1979) Seaweed resources for pharmaceutical use. In: Hoppe HA, Levring T, Tanaka Y (eds) Marine algae in pharmaceutical science. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 203–235Google Scholar
  48. Mishra VK, Temelli F, Ooraikul B, Shacklock PF, Craigie JS (1993) Lipids of the red alga, Palmaria palmata. Bot Mar 36:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morgan K, Wright J, Simpson F (1980) Review of chemical constituents of the red alga Palmaria palmata (dulse). Econ Bot 34:27–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mouritsen OG (2012a) The emerging science of gastrophysics and its application to the algal cuisine. Flavour 1:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mouritsen OG (2012b) Umami flavour as a means to regulate food intake and to improve nutrition and health. Nutr Health 21:56–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mouritsen OG (2013) Seaweeds. Edible, available & sustainable. Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  53. Mouritsen OG, Crawford MA (2007) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, neural function and mental health. Biol Skr Dan Vid Selsk 56:1–87Google Scholar
  54. Mouritsen OG, Williams L, Bjerregaard R, Duelund L (2012) Seaweeds for umami flavour in the New Nordic cuisine. Flavour 1:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Murakami S, Takemoto T, Shimizu Z, Daigo K (1953) Effective principle of Digenea. Jpn J Pharm Chem 25:571–574Google Scholar
  56. Nadler JV (1979) Kanic acid: neurophysiological and neurotoxic actions. Life Sci 24:289–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nadler JV, Evenson DA, Cuthbertson GJ (1981) Comparative study of kainic acid and other amino acods toward rat hippocampal neurons. Neurosci 6/2505–2511:2513–2517Google Scholar
  58. Pang S, Lüning K (2004) Tank cultivation of the red alga Palmaria palmata: effects of intermittent light on growth rate, yield and growth kinetics. J Appl Phycol 16:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pereira L (2012) A review of the nutrient composition of selected edible seaweeeds. In: Pomin VH (eds). Seaweed: ecology, nutrient composition, and medicinal uses. Nova Science: New York, Chap 2, pp. 15–47Google Scholar
  60. Pleasance S, Xie M, LeBlanc Y, Quilliam MA (1990) Analysis of domoic acid and related compounds by mass spectrometry and gas chromatrography/mass spectrometry as N-trifluoroacetyl-O-silyl derivatives. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom 19:420–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pomin VH (ed) (2012) Seaweed: ecology, nutrient composition, and medicinal uses. Nova Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Prasher SO, Beaugeard M, Hawari J, Bera P, Patel RM, Kim SH (2004) Biosorption of heavy metals by red algae (Palmaria palmata). Environ Technol 25:1097–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ramsey UP, Bird CJ, Shacklock PF, Laycock MV, Wright JLC (1994) Kainic acid and 1′-hydroxykainic acid from Palmariales. Nat Toxins 2:286–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rhatigan P (2009) The Irish seaweed kitchen. Booklink Co, DownGoogle Scholar
  65. Rødde RSH, Vårum KM, Larsen BA, Myklestad SM (2004) Seasonal and geographical variation in the chemical composition of the red alga Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze. Bot Mar 47:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sanchez-Machado DI, Lopez-Cervantes J, Lopez-Hernandez J, Paseiro-Losada P (2004) Fatty acids, total lipid, protein and ash contents of processed edible seaweeds. Food Chem 85:439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schäfer U, Dawczynski LM, Schubert R, Jahreis G (2009) Dietary value and toxicological potential of macroalgae products. Trace Elements Electrolytes 26:100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Simopoulos AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacotherapy 56:365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Smit AJ (2005) Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of seaweeds: a review. J Appl Phycol 16:245–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Strain SM, Tasker RAR (1991) Hippocampal damage produced by systemic injections of domoic acid in mice. Neurosci 44:343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stengel DB, Connan S, Popper ZA (2011) Algal chemodiversity and bioactivity: sources of natural variability and implications for commercial application. Biotechnol Adv 29:483–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Swanson GT, Sakai R (2009) Ligands for ionotropic glutamate receptors. Prog Mol Subcell Biol 46:123–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Teas J, Pino S, Crichley A, Braverman LE (2004) Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweeds. Thyroid 14:836–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tokuşoglu Ö, Ünal MK (2003) Biomass nutrient profiles of three microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Isochrysis galbana. J Food Sci 68:1144–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. USDA (2013) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. http://ndb/nal.usda.gov/
  76. van Netten C, Hoption Cann SA, Morley DR, van Netten JP (2000) Elemental and radioactive analysis of commercially available seaweed. Sci Total Environ 255:169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. WHO (2011a) Evaluation of certain contaminants in food: seventy-second report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 959Google Scholar
  78. WHO (2011b) Arsenic in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  79. WHO (2011c) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: seventy-third report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 960Google Scholar
  80. Zava TT, Zava DT (2011) Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: a literature-based analysis. Thyroid Res 4:14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ole G. Mouritsen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christine Dawczynski
    • 3
  • Lars Duelund
    • 1
  • Gerhard Jahreis
    • 3
  • Walter Vetter
    • 4
  • Markus Schröder
    • 4
  1. 1.MEMPHYS-Center for Biomembrane Physics, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and PharmacyUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  2. 2.Nordic Food LabCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Institute of NutritionFriedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Food Chemistry (170b)University of HohenheimStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations