Anti-inflammatory activity of phlorotannin-rich fermented Ecklonia cava processing by-product extract in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
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In this study, fermentation was employed as a tool to further increase the bioactive potential of processing by-product from a brown seaweed, Ecklonia cava, which can be obtained from food and cosmetic industries after its polyphenol extraction. The fermentation process was done for 24 h using an industrially important microorganism Candida utilis prior to being extracted with 80 % ethanol. The anti-inflammatory potential of the fermented E. cava processing by-product extract (FEPBE) was evaluated in vitro. The phlorotannin-rich FEPBE dose-dependently inhibited the nitric oxide production, prostaglandin-E2 production and suppressed the inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, was significantly suppressed by the extract in a dose-dependent manner. Due to the profound anti-inflammatory activity, FEPBE appears as a value-added biomass fraction that can be exploited in numerous industrial applications as a source of functional ingredients.
KeywordsAnti-inflammatory Ecklonia cava Phaeophyta Fermentation Functional ingredients Phlorotannins Macrophages
This research was supported by a grant from the Marine Bioprocess Research Center of the Marine Biotechnology Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport, and Maritime, Republic of Korea.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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