The ameliorating effect of Acadian marine plant extract against ionic liquids-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in marine macroalga Ulva lactuca
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Ionic liquids (ILs) are generally considered as the green replacement for conventional volatile organic solvents. Nonetheless, their high solubility in water with proven toxic effects on aquatic biota has questioned their green credentials. In the present study, the detoxification potential of Acadian marine plant extract powder (AMPEP) prepared from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum was investigated against the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C12mim]Br ionic liquid-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in marine macroalga Ulva lactuca. The IL ([C12mim]Br) at LC50 (70 μM) exposure triggered the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O 2 ·− , H2O2 and OH· causing membrane and DNA damage together with inhibition of antioxidant systems in the alga. The supplementation of AMPEP (150 μg mL−1) to the culture medium significantly reduced the accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation together with the inhibition of lipoxygenase (LOX) activity specially LOX-2 and LOX-3 isoforms. This is for the first time wherein comet assay was performed to ascertain the protective role of AMPEP against DNA damage in algal tissue grown in medium supplemented with IL and AMPEP. The AMPEP showed protective role against DNA damage (5–45 % tail DNA) when compared to those of grown in IL alone (45–70 % tail DNA). Further, specific isomorphs of different antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD-1, ~150 kDa), ascorbate peroxidase (APX-4, ~55 kDa), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px-2, ~55 kDa) and glutathione reductase (GR-1, ~180 kDa) responded specifically to AMPEP supplementation. It is evident from these findings that AMPEP could possibly be used for circumventing the negative effects arising from ILs-induced toxicity in marine ecosystem.
KeywordsIonic liquid AMPEP Marine algae DNA damage Ulva lactuca Ascophyllum nodosum
The first author (MK) gratefully acknowledges the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India for Senior Research Fellowship. We are especially grateful to Dr Alan T. Critchley (Acadian Seaplants Limited, Canada) for generously providing the Acadian marine plant extract powder and offering valuable suggestions on the first draft of manuscript.
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