Cyclic tetrapyrrolic photosensitizers from Cladophora patentiramea (Cladophoraceae, Chlorophyta) and Turbinaria conoides (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) for photodynamic therapy
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In screening for novel photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, 14 seaweed samples from Port Dickson in Malaysia were collected. Methanolic extracts of these samples were prepared and evaluated for phototoxicity using a short-term cell viability assay, where promyelocytic leukemia cells, HL60 were incubated with the extracts prior to irradiation with a broad spectrum light at 9.6 J cm−2 (equivalent to 10.5 mW cm−2 for 10 min). Four of the methanolic extracts demonstrated moderate to strong phototoxicity and bioassay-guided isolation of photosensitizers was carried out on two selected seaweeds to yield a total of eight cyclic tetrapyrrolic compounds which are derivatives of chlorophyll-a and -b. Seven of these compounds showed >50% phototoxicity at 5 μg mL−1 while exhibiting minimal cytotoxicity in the dark, which is an important characteristic of an ideal photosensitizer.