Advertisement

Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp 701–710 | Cite as

Metal resistance and removal by two strains of the green alga, Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck, isolated from Laguna de Bay, Philippines

  • J. O. Nacorda
  • M. R. Martinez-Goss
  • N. K. Torreta
  • F. E. Merca
Article

Abstract

Two strains of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck isolated from two different sites in Laguna de Bay, Philippines, were studied for their resistance and ability to remove four metal ions, i.e., Cu2+, Cr6+, Pb2+, and Cd2+ added separately in BG-11 growth medium. The growth of the two strains was severely inhibited at 2 mg.L−1 of Cu2+, 5 mg.L−1 of Cr6+, 8 mg.L−1 of Pb2+, and 10 mg.L−1 of Cd2+. However, the two strains exhibited different EC50 values for the same metal ion. The WB strain had a significantly higher resistance (p < 0.01) for Cd2+ and Cr6+ compared with the SB strain, while the SB strain had significantly higher resistance (p < 0.01) for Cu2+ compared with the WB strain. On the other hand, the two strains behaved differently in their capacity to remove the metal ions in BG-11 medium containing 1.0 mg.L−1 of the three metal ions, except for Cu2+, which was added at 0.1 mg.L−1. The WB strain showed the highest removal of Cd2+ at 70.3% of total, followed by Pb2+ at 32%, while the SB strain exhibited the highest removal of Pb2+ at 48.7% followed by Cd2+ at 40.7% of the total. Both strains showed the least removal of Cr6+ at 28% and 20.8% of the total for the WB and SB strains respectively. The percentage removal for Cu2+ was 50.7% and 60.8% for the WB and SB strains respectively. After 12 days of incubation, both strains showed that a greater percentage of the metal ions removed were accumulated intracellularly than adsorbed at a ratio of at least 2:1. Both strains manifested the same cytological deformities, like a loss of pyrenoids at 10 mg.L−1 in all four metal ions. Discoloration and disintegration of chloroplasts were observed at 1.0 mg.L−1 in Cu2+ and 5 mg.L−1 in Cr6+. The nonrelease of autospores from the mother cells was observed at 10 mg.L−1 in Cu2+ and Cr6+.

Keywords

Metal resistance Removal Chlorella vulgaris Beij. Laguna de Bay 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) for the financial support (CHED thesis/research support # 8698123) given for the study.

References

  1. APHA/AWWA/WEF (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. APHA, Washington DC, USA, pp 354–380Google Scholar
  2. Asada K, Takahashi M (1987) Production and scavenging of active oxygen in photosynthesis. In: Kyle D, Osmond C, Arnizen C (eds) Photoinhibition. Elsevier, New York, pp 227–297Google Scholar
  3. Brierly C (2002) Microbiology for the metal mining industry. In: Hurst C (ed) The manual of environmental microbiology, 2nd edn. ASM, Virginia, pp 364–380Google Scholar
  4. Cervantes C, Campos G, Devars S, Guttierez-Corona F, Loza-Tavera H, Torres-Guzman J, Moreno-Sanchez R (2001) Interactions of chromium with microorganisms and plants. FEMS Microbiol Rev 23:335–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crist RH (1988) Interactions of metals and protons with algae. Environ Sci Technol 22:755–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edwards C (1990) Microbiology of extreme environments. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 179–200Google Scholar
  7. Fisher N (1981) On the selection for heavy metal tolerance in diatoms from the Derwent estuary, Tasmania, Australia. J Mar Fresh Res 32:555–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Francisco FR (1993) A lake basin approach to water quality management: the Laguna de Bay experience. In: Sly PG (ed) Laguna lake basin, Philippines: problems and opportunities, ERMP Report # 7, UPLB DALHOUSI U. pp 85–99Google Scholar
  9. Harding J, Whitton B (1976) Environmental factors reducing the toxicity of zinc to Stigeoclonium tenue. Br Phycol J 12:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaplan D, Heimer Y, Abeliovich A, Goldsbrough P (1995) Cadmium toxicity and resistance in Chlorella sp. Plant Sci J 109:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Klimmek S, Stan H, Wilke A, Bunke G, Buchholz R (2001) Comparative analysis of biosorption of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc by algae. Environ Sci Technol 1(35):70–83Google Scholar
  12. Laguna Lake Development Authority-LLDA (1996–1999) Water quality data on the Laguna de Bay and tributary rivers. Annual Reports. Laguna Lake Development Authority, Pasig City, Metro Manila, pp 66–85Google Scholar
  13. Lasco R, Espaldon M (2005) Ecosystems and people: the Philippine Millennium Ecosytem Assessment (MA) Subglobal Assessment. Environmental Forestry Programme, College of Forestry and Natural Resources. University of the Philippines, Los Baños College, Laguna, pp 76–95Google Scholar
  14. Lupi F, Fernandes H, SáCorreia I (2004) Increase of copper toxicity to growth of Chlorella vulgaris with increase of light intensity. Microbiol Ecol 35:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Macfie S, Welbourn P (2000) The cell wall as a barrier to uptake of metal ions in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 39:413–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mallick N (2004) Copper-induced oxidative stress in the chlorophycean microalga Chlorella vulgaris: response of the antioxidant system. J Plant Physiol 161:591–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Martinez MR, Chakroff RP, Pantastico JB (1975) Note: direct phytoplankton counting techniques using a haemacytometer. Phil Agr 59:43–50Google Scholar
  18. Matsunaga T, Takeyama H, Nakao T, Yamazawa A (1999) Screening of marine microalgae for bioremediation of cadmium-polluted seawater. J Biotech 30:70–88Google Scholar
  19. McKnight D, Morel F (1979) Release of weak and strong copper-complexing agents by algae. Limnol Oceanogr 24:823–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Monahan T (1976) Lead inhibition of chlorophycean microalgae. J Phycol 12:358–362Google Scholar
  21. Olguin E (2003) Phycoremediation: key issues for cost-effective nutrient removal process. Biotechnol Adv 22:81–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Panda S, Choudhury S (2005) Chromium stress in plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:95–102Google Scholar
  23. Perez-Rama M, Alonso J, Lopez C, Vaamonde E (2002) Cadmium removal by living cells of marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica. Biores Technol J 84:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pinto H, Sigaud-Kutner T, Leilao M, Okamoto O, Morse D, Colepicolo P (2003) Heavy metal induced oxidative stress in algae. J Phycol 39:1008–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rachlin J, Grosso A (1993) The growth response of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris to combined cation exposure. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 24:16–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rai LC, Gaur JP, Kumar HD (1981) Phycology and heavy-metal pollution. Bio Rev 56:99–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Remack J (1990) The cell wall and metal binding. In: Volesky B (ed) Biosorption of heavy metals. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 83–92Google Scholar
  28. Rosko J, Rachlin J (1977) The effect of cadmium, copper, mercury, zinc and lead on cell division, growth, and chlorophyll a content of the chlorophyte Chlorella vulgaris. Bull Torrey Bot Club 104:226–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shi X, Dalal N (1990) Evidence for a Fenton type of mechanism for the generation of OH radicals in the reduction of Cr (VI) in cellular media. Arch Biochem Biophys 281:90–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soldo D, Hari R, Sigg L, Behra R (2005) Tolerance of Oocystis nephrocytiodes to copper: intracellular distribution and extracellular complexation of copper. Aquat Toxicol 71:307–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stanier RY, Kurisawa R, Mandel M, Cohen-Bazire G (1971) Purification and properties of unicellular blue-green algae (Order Chroococcales). Bacteriol Rev 35:171–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Stokes P (1975) Adaptation of green algae to high levels of copper and nickel in aquatic environments. In: Hutchinson T (ed) International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, vol 2. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp 135–154Google Scholar
  33. Swallow K, Westall J, McKnight D, Morel N, Morel F (1978) Potentiometric determination of copper complexation by phytoplankton exudates. Limnol Oceanogr 23:538–542Google Scholar
  34. Szalontai B, Horvarh I, Dechrechzeny L, Droppa M (1999) Molecular rearrangements of thylakoids after heavy metal poisoning, as seen by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Photosyn Rev 61:211–232Google Scholar
  35. Takamura N, Kasai F, Watanabe M (1989) Effects of copper, cadmium and zinc on photosynthesis of freshwater benthic algae. J Appl Phycol 1:39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Trevors J, Stratton G, Gadd G (1986) Cadmium transport, resistance, and toxicity in bacteria, algae and fungi. Can J Microbiol 32(6):447–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Warren A, Day J, Brown S (2002) Cultivation of algae and protozoa. In: Hurst C (ed) The manual of environmental microbiology, 2nd edn. ASM, Virginia, pp 71–83Google Scholar
  38. Winterbourn C (1982) Superoxide-dependent formation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of iron salts is a feasible source of hydroxyl radicals in vivo. Biochem J Lett 203:161–163Google Scholar
  39. Zsolt H, Oláh V, Balogh Á, Mészáros I, Simon L, Lakatos G (2006) Effect of chromium (VI) on growth, element and photosynthetic pigment composition of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Acta Biologica Szeged 50(1–2):19–23Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. O. Nacorda
    • 1
  • M. R. Martinez-Goss
    • 1
  • N. K. Torreta
    • 1
  • F. E. Merca
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of the Philippines Los Baños, CollegeLagunaPhilippines
  2. 2.Institute of ChemistryUniversity of the Philippines Los Baños, CollegeLagunaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations