Advertisement

Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 931–948 | Cite as

Technology as Responsibility: Failure, Food Animals, and Lab-grown Meat

  • Wyatt GaluskyEmail author
Articles

Abstract

As we become more aware of the various problems associated with technologically mediated meat production (e.g., the lives of the animals, the human health effects of consuming meat, the ecological impacts of large-scale animal farming), we also confront a variety of technologically mediated potential fixes (e.g., in vitro meat technologies). Rather than comparing bad and good technologies in the context of meat, I want instead to explore the dynamics of the human-animal relationships expressed within specific approaches. This method, I suggest, illustrates the technological aspects of the relationships, which reflect an orientation to the world (in the form of the animal body and the surrounding ecologies) that mediates human interaction with the environment. It also helps to show that the more we try to take responsibility for those bodies—in terms of knowledge, in terms of energy—the more we require the environment to reflect our conditions and the less tolerant we become of failure.

Keywords

Meat Agriculture Technology In vitro meat Responsibility Ethics 

References

  1. Animal Welfare on the Farm. http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/welfare/farm/index_en.htm. Accessed 17 March 2014.
  2. Bisson, T. (1991). They’re made out of meat. Omni Magazine, 13(7), 54.Google Scholar
  3. Boyd, W. (2001). Making Meat: Science, Technology, and American Poultry Production. Technology and Culture, 42(4), 631–664.Google Scholar
  4. Bulliet, R. W. (2005). Hunters, herders, and hamburgers: the past and future of human-animal relationships. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cannavò, P. (2010). Listening to the ‘Yuck Factor’: Why In-Vitro meat may be too much to digest, American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. (panel: “Digesting Nature”).Google Scholar
  6. Churchill, W. (1931). Fifty Years Hence. Strand Magazine, http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/fifty-years-hence/. Accessed 17 March 2014.
  7. Cook, C. (2010). Sliced and diced: The labor you eat. In D. Imhoff (Ed.), The CAFO reader: The tragedy of industrial animal factories (pp. 232–239). Calif.: Watershed Media.Google Scholar
  8. Deych, R. (2005). How one vegan views in-vitro meat. http://www.rrrina.com/invitro_meat.htm. Accessed 2 June 2011.
  9. Edelman, P. E., McFarland, D. C., Mironov, V. A., & Matheny, J. G. (2004). In vitro cultured meat production. NewHarvest.org, http://www.new-harvest.org/img/files/Invitro.pdf. Accessed 6 April 2008.
  10. Edgerton, D. (2007). The shock of the old: Technology and global history since 1900. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Engber, D. (2008). The Bogus $1 Million Meat Prize. slate.com, http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2008/04/the_bogus_1_million_meat_prize.html. Accessed 24 March 2014.
  12. Faber, M. (2000). Under the skin. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  13. Fiddes, N. (1991). Meat, a natural symbol. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Foer, J. S. (2009). Eating animals. New York: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  15. Fountain, H. (2013a). Building a $325,000 Burger. The New York Times, 14 May 2013, D1.Google Scholar
  16. Fountain, H. (2013b). Frying Up a Lab-Grown Hamburger. The New York Times, 5 August 2013, D5.Google Scholar
  17. Galusky, W. (2010). Playing Chicken: Technologies of domestication, food, and self. Science as Culture, 19(1), 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heidegger, M. (1977). The question concerning technology, and other essays. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  19. Hopkins, P. D., & Dacey, A. (2008). Vegetarian meat: Could technology save animals and satisfy meat eaters? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 21(6), 579–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Horowitz, R. (2006). Putting meat on the American table: Taste, technology, transformation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Imhoff, D. (2010). The CAFO reader: The tragedy of industrial animal factories. Healdsburg, Calif: Watershed Media.Google Scholar
  22. Jiang, L. (2012). Alexis Carrel’s Immortal Chick Heart Tissue Cultures (1912–1946). Embryo Project Encyclopedia, http://embryo.asu.edu/handle/10776/3937. Accessed 17 March 2014.
  23. Jones, N. (2010). A taste of things to come? Nature, 468, 752–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Joy, M. (2008). Strategic action for animals: A handbook on strategic movement building, organizing, and activism for animal liberation. New York: Lantern Books.Google Scholar
  25. Keith, L. (2009). The vegetarian myth: Food, justice and sustainability. Crescent City, Ca: Flashpoint Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kirby, D. (2010). Animal factory: The looming threat of industrial pig, dairy, and poultry farms to humans and the environment. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  27. Krakauer, E. L. (1998). The disposition of the subject: Reading Adorno’s dialectic of technology. Evanston, Ill: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Landecker, H. (2007). Culturing life: How cells became technologies. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Lapham, L. H. (2013). Man and beast. Lapham’s Quarterly, VI(2), 13–21.Google Scholar
  30. Latour, B. (2002). Morality and technology: The end of the means. Theory, Culture & Society, 19(5/6), 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Logsdon, G. (2004). All flesh is grass: The pleasures and promises of pasture farming. Athens: Swallow Press.Google Scholar
  32. McPhee, J. (1989). The control of nature. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.Google Scholar
  33. McWilliams, J. W. (2012). The myth of sustainable meat. The New York Times, 12, A31.Google Scholar
  34. Michel, M. (2012). McDonald’s US pledges to phase out sow stalls. GlobalMeatNews.com, http://www.globalmeatnews.com/Livestock/McDonald-s-US-pledges-to-phase-out-sow-stalls. Accessed 17 March 2014.
  35. Norman, D. A. (2011). Living with complexity. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  36. Novak, J. (2012). Discipline and distancing: Confined pigs in the factory farm Gulag. In A. Gross & A. Vallely (Eds.), Animals and the human imagination: A companion to animal studies (pp. 121–151). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Oboler, A. (1937). Chicken heart [Radio series episode]. In Lights Out. Retrieved from https://archive.org/download/LightsOutoldTimeRadio/LightsOut-1937-03-10ChickenHeart.mp3. Accessed 18 March 2014.
  38. Ogle, M. (2013). In meat we trust: An unexpected history of carnivore America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  39. Perrow, C. (2011). Normal accidents: Living with high risk technologies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  40. PETA’s ‘In Vitro’ Chicken Contest (2014) http://www.peta.org/features/vitro-meat-contest/. Accessed 24 March.
  41. Philpott, T. (2010). Squeezed to the last drop: The loss of family farms. In D. Imhoff (Ed.), The CAFO reader: The tragedy of industrial animal factories (pp. 176–181). Calif.: Watershed Media.Google Scholar
  42. Pluhar, E. (2010). Meat and morality: Alternatives to factory farming. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 23(5), 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pohl, F., & Kornbluth, C. M. (1969). The space merchants. New York: Walker.Google Scholar
  44. Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma: A natural history of four meals. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  45. Salatin, J. (1995). Salad bar beef. Swoope, Va: Polyface.Google Scholar
  46. Saletan, W. (2006). The Conscience of a Carnivore. slate.com, http://www.slate.com/id/2142547/. Accessed 23 May 2011.
  47. Schonwald, J. (2009). Future Fillet. University of Chicago Magazine, http://magazine.uchicago.edu/0906/features/future_fillet.shtml. Accessed 2 June 2011.
  48. Scott, J.C. (1998). Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Simon, D. R. (2013). Meatonomics: How the rigged economics of meat and dairy make you consume too much-and how to eat better, live longer, and spend smarter. San Francisco, CA: Conari Press.Google Scholar
  50. Singer, P. 2013. The world’s first cruelty-free hamburger. The Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/05/worlds-first-cruelty-free-hamburger. Accessed 18 March 2014.
  51. Soper, K. (1996). Nature/’nature’. In G. Robertson, M. Mash, L. Tickner, J. Bird, B. Curtis, & T. Putnam (Eds.), FutureNatural: Nature, science, culture (pp. 22–34). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Specter, M. (2011). Test-tube burgers. The New Yorker, 23, 32–38.Google Scholar
  53. Striffler, S. (2005). Chicken: The dangerous transformation of America’s favorite food. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Stull, D. D., & Broadway, M. J. (2004). Slaughterhouse blues: The meat and poultry industry in North America. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  55. Tomaselli, P., & Niles, M. (2010). Changing the law: The road to reform. In D. Imhoff (Ed.), The CAFO reader: The tragedy of industrial animal factories (pp. 314–329). Calif.: Watershed Media.Google Scholar
  56. Verbeek, P.-P. (2005). What things do: Philosophical reflections on technology, agency, and design. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Vialles, N. (1994). Animal to edible. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Warkentin, T. (2006). Dis/integrating animals: Ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption. AI & SOCIETY, 20(1), 82–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Weis, A. (2013). The ecological hoofprint. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  60. Wolfson, W. (2002). Lab-Grown Steaks Nearing the Menu. New Scientist, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3208-labgrown-steaks-nearing-the-menu.html. Accessed 23 May 2011.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Science, Technology and Society ProgramMorrisville State CollegeMorrisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations