Dueling Land Ethics: Uncovering Agricultural Stakeholder Mental Models to Better Understand Recent Land Use Conversion
- 432 Downloads
The aim of this paper is to investigate how alternative land ethics of agricultural stakeholders may help explain recent land use changes. The paper first explores the historical development of the land ethic concept in the United States and how those ethics have impacted land use policy and use of private lands. Secondly, primary data gathered from semi-structured interviews of farmers, ranchers, and influential stakeholders are then analyzed using stakeholder analysis methods to identify major factors considered in land use decisions, priorities of factors of each group, and to define relevant mental models describing each group’s view of the land ethic concept. Results show that these stakeholder groups prioritize land use factors qualitatively differently and possess strikingly different land ethics. It is concluded that shifts in stakeholder land ethics have contributed to recent land use changes. Lastly, we discuss how current agricultural policy sends mixed signals about preferred land use and the potential ramifications based on the different land ethics we’ve described.
KeywordsLand ethic Mental models Land use Stakeholder analysis
- Barlowe, T. (1981). Soil conservation policies: An assessment. Ankeny, IA: Soil Conservation Society of America.Google Scholar
- Baumhardt, R. L. (2003). Dust Bowl Era. Encyclopedia of Water Science, DOI: 10.1081/E-EWS.
- Boyd, J. P., Cullen, C. T., Catanzariti, J., & Oberg, B. B. (Eds.). (1950). The papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Claassen, R., Carriazo, F., Cooper, J. C., Hellerstein, D., & Udea, K. (2011). Grassland to cropland conversion in the Northern Plains: The role of crop insurance, commodity, and disaster programs. ERR-120, U.S.D.A. Economic Research Service, June 2011.Google Scholar
- Cooke, M. L., Bennett, H. H., Fowler, F. H., Harrington, F. C., Moore, R. C., Page, J. C., Wallace, H. A., & Tugwell, R. G. (1936). Report of the great plains drought area committee. Box 13, Hopkins Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lib. http://newdeal.feri.org/texts/450.htm.
- Didier, E. A., & Brunson, M. W. (2004). Adoption of range management innovations by Utah ranchers. Journal of Range Management, 52, 7–18.Google Scholar
- Diebel, P. L. (2008). Ethics and agriculture: A teaching perspective. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 33(3), 303–310.Google Scholar
- Emerson, R. W. (1836). Nature. Boston: James Munroe and Company. http://ia700204.us.archive.org/22/items/naturemunroe00emerrich/naturemunroe00emerrich.pdf.
- Encarta, Manifest Destiny, United States History. (2006). http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568247/manifest_destiny.html.
- Faber, S., Rundquist, S., & Male, T. (2012). Plowed under: How crop subsidies contribute to massive habitat losses. Environmental Working Group. http://www.ewg.org/. Accessed 7 Aug 2012.
- FAO. (2011). In D. B. Hannaway & H. A. Fribourg (Eds.), Country pasture/forage resource profiles, United States of America. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization. http://www.fao.org/ag/Agp/AGPC/doc/Counprof/PDF%20files/USA.pdf.
- GAO. (1977). To protect tomorrow’s food supply, soil conservation needs priority attention. CED 77-30. GAO, Washington, DC. http://www.gao.gov/products/CED-77-30.
- Gray, L. C., Bennett, J. B., Kraemer, E., & Sparhawk, W. N. (1938). The causes: Traditional attitudes and institutions. In Soils and men USDA yearbook of agriculture (pp. 111–135). Washington, DC: USA Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Hancock, B., Windridge, K., Ockleford, E. (2007). An introduction to qualitative research. The National Institute of Health Research, Research Design Service for the East Midlands, Yorkshire and the Humbler.Google Scholar
- Harlin, J., & Barardi, G. (1987). Agricultural soil loss. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
- Johnson, V. (1947). Heaven’s tableland: The dust bowl story. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company.Google Scholar
- Lee, L. K. (1984). Land use and soil loss: A 1982 update. Journal of Soil Water Conservation, 39, 226.Google Scholar
- Leopold, A. (1949). A sand county almanac. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lockeretz, W. (1978). The lessons of the dust bowl: Several decades before the current concern with environmental problems, dust storms ravaged the Great Plains, and the threat of more dust storms still hangs over us. American Scientist, 66(5), 550–569.Google Scholar
- Philpott, T. (2008). A reflection on the lasting legacy of 1970s USDA Secretary Earl Butz. http://grist.org/article/the-butz-stops-here/.
- Preston, L. E. (1975). Corporation and society: The search for a paradigm. Journal of Economic Literature, 13, 434–453.Google Scholar
- Robinson, S., Dixon, J. R., Preece, C. N., & Moodley, K. (2007). Engineering, business and professional ethics. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Roosevelt, T. R. (1907a). Seventh state of the union address, December 3, 1907. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt%27s_Seventh_State_of_the_Union_Address.
- Roosevelt, T. R. (1907b). Address to the deep waterway convention, Memphis, TN. October 4, 1907.Google Scholar
- Sachs, A. (1994). Dust to dust: Forgotten lessons of America’s great agricultural catastrophe. World Watch, 7(1), 32–35.Google Scholar
- Stegner, W. (1992). Beyond the hundredth meredian. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Thompson, P. B. (1990). Agricultural ethics and economics. Journal of Agricultural Economics Research, 42(1), 3–7.Google Scholar
- Thoreau, H. D. (1854). Walden. New York: New American Library, Penguin Putnam Inc.Google Scholar
- Varvasovszky, Z., & Brugha, R. (2000). Stakeholder analysis: A review. Heath Policy Plan, 15(3), 239–246.Google Scholar
- Warwick, S. L., & Cochoran, P. L. (1985). The evolution of the corporate social performance model. Academy of Management Review, 4, 758–769.Google Scholar