Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 455–468 | Cite as

Meat and Morality: Alternatives to Factory Farming

  • Evelyn B. Pluhar


Scientists have shown that the practice of factory farming is an increasingly urgent danger to human health, the environment, and nonhuman animal welfare. For all these reasons, moral agents must consider alternatives. Vegetarian food production, humane food animal farming, and in-vitro meat production are all explored from a variety of ethical perspectives, especially utilitarian and rights-based viewpoints, all in the light of current U.S. and European initiatives in the public and private sectors. It is concluded that vegetarianism and potentially in-vitro meat production are the best-justified options.


Factory farming Humane farming In-vitro meat production Rights theory Utilitarianism Vegetarianism 



I would like to thank the anonymous reviewers of an earlier version of this paper for their helpful suggestions


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Professor of PhilosophyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniontownUSA

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