Journal of Academic Ethics

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 215–228 | Cite as

Cross-Validation of the Reactions to Faculty Incivility Measurement through a Multidimensional Scaling Approach

  • Dorit AltEmail author
  • Yariv Itzkovich


Incivility in the academic arena elicits a wide range of reactions: it interferes with learning, increases stress, feelings of disrespect and helplessness. Although reactions to incivility were mainly tested in workplaces, an extensive, robust framework to explain and measure responses to faculty incivility (FI) is yet to be offered. This study used Facet theory (FT) approach with a multidimensional scaling method of smallest space analysis (SSA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to confirm the theoretical structure of reactions to FI. A mapping sentence was constructed expressing the composite of three individual facets based on the theoretical framework: Facet A including four types of reactions (1)Exit (2) Voice (3) Loyalty and (4) Neglect (EVLN); Facet B reflecting the destructiveness – constructiveness dimension, and Facet C illustrating a dimension ranging from passive to active responses. Data were gathered by a scale measuring students’ reactions to FI. According to the findings, the CFA result presented four relatively interpretable factors (EVLN) while the SSA showed these factors as well as additional facets (B and C).


Faculty incivility Facet theory, smallest space analysis, confirmatory factor analysis EVLN model Higher education 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kinneret College on the Sea of GalileeJordan ValleyIsrael

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