Journal of Academic Ethics

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 45–71 | Cite as

An Investigation into Unethical Behavior Intentions Among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Study

Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the dimensions of the theory of planned behavior, gender and course majors on unethical behavior intentions among Generation Y undergraduates. The sample of this study comprises 245 undergraduates from a private higher education institution (PHEI) in Malaysia. The instrument of this study is developed based on concepts developed from extant literature. Reliability and validity is accessed using Cronbach’s Alpha and Exploratory Factor Analysis respectively. Social desirability bias was monitored utilizing concepts adapted from Phillips and Clancy (American Journal of Sociology, 77(5), 921–940, 1972). Multiple Linear Regression and Independent sample T-tests were used for hypotheses testing. As a whole, results indicate that egoism, utilitarianism and magnitude of consequences exerted significant influence on unethical behavior intentions. Peer influence was not significant. In terms of gender, unethical intentions among males were influenced by egoism and peer influenced while females by utilitarianism and magnitude of consequences. Business majors did not consider magnitude of consequences significant in unethical behavior intentions. Ethical values form the fundamentals of ethical culture within organizations and a business environment which is increasingly based on self-regulation. Ethics is an essential part of the holistic personal development of future business leaders. As such, by understanding ethical attitudes and perceptions, we can draw implications for the further enhancements of teaching and learning of Business Ethics in academia as well as the development of ethical culture in the Malaysian context. Educators, parents and society also need to realise their role in the ethical development of these future Malaysian leaders. The framework of this study could be extended to actual behaviors, adult samples and also account for religiosity and age. This study utilizes the established dimensions and framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior in bridging the gap of research in unethical behavior within the context of a PHEI in Malaysia.

Keywords

Business education Business ethics Generation Y Unethical behavior 

References

  1. Abdul Rashid, M. Z., & Ho, J. A. (2003). Perception of business ethics in a multicultural community: the case of Malaysia. Journal of Business Ethics, 43, 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, N. H., Ansari, N. A., & Aafaqi, R. (2005). Ethical reasoning: the impact of ethical dilemma, egoism and belief in just world. Asian Academy of Malaysian Journal, 10(2), 81–101.Google Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. (1991). Theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alam, S. S., Ahmad, A., Ahmad, M. S., & Nik Hashim, N. M. H. (2011). An empirical study of an extended theory of planned behavior model for pirated software purchase. World Journal of Management, 3(1), 124–133.Google Scholar
  5. Ali, K. K., Salleh, R., & Sabdin, M. (2010). A study on the level of ethics at a Malaysian private higher learning institution: comparison between foundation and undergraduate technical-based students. International Journal of Basic and, Applied Statistics, 10(8), 35–49.Google Scholar
  6. Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned baheviour: a meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1982). Self–efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnett, T. (2001). Dimensions of moral intensity and ethical decision making: an empirical study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(5), 1038–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnett, T., Bass, K., & Brown, G. (1994). Ethical ideology and ethical judgment regarding ethical issues in business. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(6), 469–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnett, T., Brown, G., & Bass, K. (1994). The ethical judgments of college students regarding business issues. The Journal of Education for Business, 69(6), 333–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bateman, C. R., & Valentine, S. R. (2010). Investigating the effects of gender on consumers’ moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 393–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beltramini, R., Peterson, R., & Kozmetsky, G. (1984). Concerns of college students regarding business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 3, 195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowes-Sperry, L., & Powell, G. N. (1999). Observers’ reactions to social-sexual behavior at work: an ethical decision making perspective. Journal of Management, 25(6), 779–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buchan, H. F. (2005). Ethical decision making in the public accounting profession: an extension of Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 61, 165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bushe, S., & Gilbertson, D. (2007). Business ethics: where philosophy and ethics collide. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 3(2), 1–34.Google Scholar
  16. Butterfield, K. D., Trevino, L. K., & Weaver, G. R. (2000). Moral awareness in business organisations: influences of issue-related and social context factors. Human Relations, 53(7), 981–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carol, Y. Y. L. (1999). Business ethics in Taiwan: a comparison of company employees and university student. Business and Professional Ethics Journal, 18(2), 69–90.Google Scholar
  18. Carrell, S. E., Malmstorm, J. E., & West, J. E. (2007). Peer effects in academic cheating. Journal of Human Resource, 43(1), 173–207.Google Scholar
  19. Chai, L. T., Lung, C. K., & Ramly, Z. (2009). Exploring ethical orientation of future business leaders in Malaysia. International Review of Business Research Paper, 5(2), 109–120.Google Scholar
  20. Chan, S. Y. S., & Leung, P. (2006). The effects of accounting students’ ethical reasoning and personal factors on their sensitivity. Managerial Auditing Journal, 21(4), 436–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chang, M. K. (1998). Predicting unethical behavior: a comparison of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics, 17, 1825–1834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen, M., Pan, C., & Pan, M. (2009). The joint moderating impact of moral intensity and moral judgment on consumer’s use intention of pirated software. Journal of Business Ethics, 90, 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheong, C. K. (1999). Ethical judgment and ethical reasoning: a cross-lag model for university students in Hong Kong. College Studies Journal, 33(4), 515–534.Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conner, M., & Armitage, C. J. (1998). Extending the theory of planned behavior: a review of avenues for future research. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), 1429–1464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cox, T. (2009). Business students cheat more often than others. The Badger Herald http://badgerherald.com/news/2009/02/11/study_business_stude.php. Accessed 3 June 2011.
  27. Crane, A., & Matten, D. (2004). Questioning the domain of the business ethics curriculum. Journal of Business Ethics, 54, 357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24(4), 349–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crutchfield, R. S. (1955). Conformity and character. American Psychologist, 10(1), 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Curtin, P. A., Gallicano, T., & Matthews, K. (2011). Millennials’ approaches to ethical decision making: a survey of young public relations agency employees. The Public Relations Journal, 5(2), 1–22.Google Scholar
  31. d’Astous, A., Colbert, F., & Montpetit, D. (2005). Music piracy on the web- how effective are anti-piracy arguments: evidence from the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Consumer Policy, 28, 289–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Debeljak, J., & Krkac, K. (2008). “Me, myself & I”: practical egoism, selfishness, self-interest and business ethics. Social Responsibility Journal, 4(1), 217–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Devinney, T. M. (2010). The consumer, politics and everyday life. Australasian Marketing Journal, 18(3), 190–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dharan, B. G., & Bufkins, W. R. (2008). Red flags in Enron’s reporting of revenues & key financial measures, http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bala/files/dharan-bufkins_enron_red_flags.pdf. Accessed 8 August 2012.
  35. Dukerich, J. M., Waller, M. J., George, E., & Huber, G. P. (2000). Moral intensity and managerial problem solving. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eisend, M., & Schubert-Güler, P. (2006). Explaining counterfeit purchases: a review and preview. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2006, 1(1). http://search.proquest.com/docview/200799861?accountid=40355 Accessed 3 August 2012.
  37. Elias, R. Z., & Faraj, M. (2010). The relationship between accounting students’ love for money and their ethical perception. Managerial Auditing Journal, 25(3), 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ethics Resource Center (2010). 2009 National business ethics survey: Millennials, Gen X and Baby Boomers: who’s working at your company and what do they think about ethics? http://ethics.org/files/u5/Gen-Diff.pdf Accessed 15 April 2012.
  39. Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#SSH1b.i Accessed 8 May 2011.
  40. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  41. Flannery, B. L., & May, D. R. (2000). Environmental ethical decision making in the U.S. metal-finishing industry. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 642–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ford, R. C., & Richardson, W. D. (1994). Ethical decision making: a review of the empirical literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Franke, G. R., Crown, D. E., & Spake, D. E. (1997). Gender differences in ethical perception of business practices. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 920–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frey, B. (2000). The impact of moral intensity on decision making in a business context. Journal of Business Ethics, 26(3), 181–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fukukawa, K. (2002). Developing a framework for ethically questionable behavior in consumption. Journal of Business Ethics, 41, 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Giacomo, D. E., Brown, J., & Akers, M. D. (2011). Generational differences of personal values of business students. American Journal of Business Education, 4(9), 19–30.Google Scholar
  47. Gill, S. (2010). Is gender inclusivity an answer to ethical issue in business?: an Indian stance. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(1), 37–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gino, F., Ayal, S., & Ariely, D. (2009). Contagion and differentiation in unethical behavior: the effect of one bad apple on the barrel. Journal of the Association of Psychological Science, 20(3), 393–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Granitz, N., & Loewry, D. (2007). Applying ethical theories: interpreting and responding to student plagiarism. Journal of Business Ethics, 72, 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gupta, J. L., & Sulaiman, M. (1996). Ethical orientations of managers in Malaysia. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, 735–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). USA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  52. Harrington, S. (1997). A test of a person issue contingent model of ethical decision making in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(4), 363–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision making by individuals in organisations: an issue-contingent model. Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 366–395.Google Scholar
  54. Jones, G. E., & Kavanagh, M. J. (1996). An experimental examination of the effects of individual and situational factors on unethical behavioral intentions in the workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, 511–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kakabadse, N. K., Kakabadse, A., & Kouzmin, A. (2002). Ethical considerations in management research: a ‘truth’ seeker’s guide. International Journal of Value–Based Management, 15(2), 105–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kay, C. D. (1997). Varieties of egoism. http://webs.wofford.edu/kaycd/ethics/egoism.htm Accessed 8 May 2011.
  57. Kevin, J. (2010). The scandal beneath the crisis: getting a view from a cultural-moral mental model. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 33(2), 735–778.Google Scholar
  58. Kirkpatrick, J. (2002). A critique of “is business bluffing ethical?” Marketing Educators’ Association Conference, 21st April 2002, San Diego. http://www.csupomona.edu/~jkirkpatrick/Papers/CritBluff.pdf Accessed 11 August 2012.
  59. Kish-Gephart, J. J., Harrison, D. A., & Trevino, L. K. (2010). Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klein, H. A., Levenburg, N. M., & Mothersell, W. (2006). Cheating during the college years: how do business school students compare. Journal of Business Ethics, 72, 197–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  62. Krowske, B. J., Rasch, R., & Wiley, J. (2010). Millennials’ (lack of) attitude problem: an empirical examination of generational effects on work attitudes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 265–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lane, J. C. (1995). Ethics of business students: some marketing perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 14, 571–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lau, T. C., Choe, K. L., & Ramly, Z. (2009). Exploring ethical orientations of future business leaders in Malaysia. International Review of Business Research Papers, 5(2), 109–120.Google Scholar
  65. Li, J., Mizerski, D., Lee, A., & Liu, F. (2009). The relationship between attitude and behavior: an empirical study in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 21(2), 232–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lincoln, S. H., & Holmes, E. K. (2010). The psychology of making ethical decisions: what affects the decision? Psychology Services, 7(2), 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Macdonald, J. E., & Beck-Dudley, C. L. (1994). Are deontology and teleology mutually exclusive? Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 615–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mahmud, S. N. D., & Osman, K. (2010). The determinants of recycling intention behavior among the Malaysian school students: an application of theory of planned behaviour. Procedia–Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Manski, C. F. (1993). Identification and endogenous social effects: the reflection problem. Review of Economic Studies, 60(3), 531–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mat Norwani, N., Mohamad, Z. Z., & Chek, I. T. (2011). Corporate governance failure and impact on financial reporting within selected companies. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(21), 205–213.Google Scholar
  71. May, D. R., & Pauli, K. P. (2002). The role of moral intensity in ethical decision making: a review and investigation of moral recognition, evaluation and intention. Business Society, 41(1), 84–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McCabe, D. L., Trevino, L. K., & Butterfield, K. D. (2001). Cheating in academic institutions: a decade of research. Ethics & Behavior, 11(3), 209–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McLean, P. A., & Jones, D. G. B. (1992). Machiavellianism and business education. Psychological Reports, 71, 57–58.Google Scholar
  74. McMahon, J. M., & Harvey, R. J. (2006). An analysis of the factor structure of Jones’ moral intensity construct. Journal of Business Ethics, 64, 381–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McMahon, J. M., & Harvey, R. J. (2007). Psychometric properties of the Reidenbach–Robin multidimensional ethics scale. Journal of Business Ethics, 72, 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Modarres, A., & Rafiee, A. (2011). Influencing factors on the ethical decision making of Iranian accountants. Social Responsibility Journal, 7(6), 136–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mokhtar, R., Othman, A., Zainuddin, Y. (2010). Psychological characteristics and entrepreneurial intention among Polytechnic students in Malaysia: a theory of planned behavior approach. In The first seminar on: entrepreneurship and societal development in Asean (ISE-SODA 2010) “Achieving Regional Growth through Entrepreneurship Education”, 27th February–1st March 2010, City Bayview Hotel Langkawi. ASEAN Universities Consortium of Entrepreneurship Education (AUCEE), 55–69.Google Scholar
  78. Molnar, K. K., Kletke, M. G., & Chongwatpol, J. (2008). Ethics vs. IT ethics: do undergraduate perceive a difference. Journal of Business Ethics, 83, 657–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morris, S., & McDonald, R. (1995). The role of moral intensity in moral judgments: an empirical investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(9), 715–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nantel, J., & Weeks, W. A. (1996). Marketing ethics: is there more to it than the utilitarian approach? European Journal of Marketing, 30(5), 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nicholas, A. J. (2009). Generational perceptions: workers and consumers. Journal of Business and Economics Research, 7(10), 47–52.Google Scholar
  82. Noordin, M. F., & Sadi, A. H. M. S. (2010). The adoption of mobile commerce in Malaysia: an exploratory study on the extension of theory of planned behavior. Journal of Business Analyst, 31(1), 1–30.Google Scholar
  83. Owens, D. (1998). From the business ethics course to the sustainable curriculum. Journal of Business Ethics, 17, 1765–1777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Paulhus, D. L., Harms, P. D., Bruce, M. N., & Lysy, D. C. (2003). The over-claiming technique: measuring self-enhancement independent of ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 890–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pauli, K. P., & May, D. R. (2002). Ethics and the digital dragnet: magnitude of consequences, accountability, and the ethical decision making of information systems professionals. Academy of Management Proceedings, http://www.slis.indiana.edu/faculty/hrosenba/www/l574/pdf/pauli_ethics-it.pdf Accessed 11 June 2011.
  86. Pearsall, M. J., & Ellis, A. P. J. (2011). Thick as thieves: the effects of ethical orientation and psychological safety on unethical team behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(2), 401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peterson, R. (1994). A meta-analysis of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(2), 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Phillips, D. L., & Clancy, K. J. (1972). Some effects of “social desirability” in survey studies. The American Journal of Sociology, 77(5), 921–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rainbow, C. (2002). Descriptive of ethical theories and principles, http://www.biodavidson.edu/people/kaberndep/carainbow/Theories.html Accessed 1 June 2011.
  90. Randall, D. M. (1994). Why students take elective business ethics courses: applying the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 369–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rest, J. R. (1986). Moral development: Advances in research and theory. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  92. Ryan, T. G., & Bisson, J. (2011). Can ethics be taught? International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(12), 44–52.Google Scholar
  93. Saat, M. M., Jamal, N. M., Othman, A. (2004). Lecturer’s and student’s perception on ethics in academic and lecturer’s-student interaction. Research Management Centre, http://eprints.utm.my/2745/1/71989.pdf Accessed 4 June 2011.
  94. Saat, M. M., Porter, S., & Woodbine, G. (2010). An exploratory study of the impact of Malaysian ethics education on ethical sensitivity. Journal of Business Ethics Education, 7, 39–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Salleh, A., Ahmad, A., & Kumah, N. (2009). Human governance: a neglected mantra for continuous performance improvement. Performance Improvement, 48(9), 26–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sautter, J. A., Brown, T. A., Littvay, L., Sautter, A. C., & Bearness, B. (2008). Attitude and divergence in business students: an examination of personality differences in business and non-business students. EBO Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 13(2), 70–78.Google Scholar
  97. Securities Commission (2012). Malaysian code on Corporate Governance 2012, http://www.sc.com.my/eng/html/cg/cg2012.pdf Accessed 11 August 2012.
  98. Sedmak, S., & Nastav, B. (2010). Perception of ethical behavior among business studies student. 11th International Conference on Social Responsibility, Professional Ethics and Management, 24–27 November 2010, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  99. Shaver, R. (2010). Egoism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2010/entries/egoism/ Accessed 23 April 2012.
  100. Shaw, W. H., & Barry, V. (2010). Moral issues in business (11th ed.). Canada: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  101. Sikula, A., & Costa, A. (1994). Are women more ethical than men? Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 859–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Singer, M., Mitchell, S., & Turner, J. (1998). Consideration of moral intensity in ethicality judgments: its relationship with whistle blowing and need-for-cognition. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(5), 527–541.Google Scholar
  103. Singhapakdi, A., Vitell, S. J., & Franke, G. R. (1999). Antecedents, consequences, and mediating effects of perceived moral intensity and personal moral philosophies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(1), 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Singhapakdi, A., Karande, K., Rao, C. P., & Vitell, S. J. (2001). How important are ethics and social responsibility? a multinational study of marketing professionals. European Journal of Marketing, 5(1/2), 133–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Smith, H. (2010). Measuring the consequences of rules. Utitas, 22(4), 413–434.Google Scholar
  106. Smith, J. W., & Clark, G. (2010). New games, different roles- Millennials are in town. Journal of Diversity Management, 1(3), 1–11.Google Scholar
  107. Smith, K. J., Davy, J. A., Rosenberg, D. L., & Haight, G. F. (2009). The role of motivation and attitude on cheating among business students (pp. 12–37). Ethics: Journal of Academic and Business.Google Scholar
  108. Sommer, L. (2005). The theory of planned behavior and impact on past behavior. The International Business & Economics Research Journal, 10(1), 91–110.Google Scholar
  109. Stone, T. H., Jawahar, I. M., & Kisamore, J. L. (2009). Using the theory of planned behavior and cheating justifications to predict academic misconduct. Career Development International, 14(3), 221–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sutherland, E. H. (1983). White collar crime: The uncut version. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Sweeney, B., & Costello, F. (2009). Moral intensity and ethical decision-making: an empirical examination of undergraduate accounting and business students. Accounting Education: An International Journal, 18(1), 75–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thoma, S. J. (1986). Estimating gender differences in the comprehension and preference of moral issues. Developmental Review, 6(2), 165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thompson, E. R., & Phua, F. T. T. (2005). Reliability among senior managers of the Marlowe-Crowne short-form social desirability scale. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19(4), 541–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Thuraisingam, A. S., & Sivanathan, P. (2012). Gxeneration Y’s perception towards law and ethics. Journal of Advanced Social Research, 2, 52–66.Google Scholar
  115. Transparency International (2011). Surveys and indices: corruption perception index, http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi Accessed 23 April 2012.
  116. Treviño, L. K., & Brown, M. E. (2004). Managing to be ethical: debunking five business ethics myth. The Academy of Management Executive, 18(2), 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Trevino, L. K., Weaver, G. R., & Reynolds, S. J. (2006). Behavioral ethics in organizations: a review. Journal of Management, 32(6), 951–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tsalikis, J., & Ortiz-Buonafina, M. (1990). Ethical beliefs’ differences of males and females. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 509–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vanasco, R. R. (1998). Fraud auditing. Managerial Auditing Journal, 13(1), 4–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Weber, J. (1996). Influences upon managerial moral decision making: nature of the harm and magnitude of consequences. Human Relation, 49(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Weber, J., & Gillespie, J. (1998). Differences in ethical beliefs, intentions and behaviors: the role of beliefs and intentions in ethics research revisited. Business and Society, 37(4), 447–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wilson, B. A. (2008). Predicting intended unethical behavior of business students. Journal of Education for Business, March/April, 187–194.Google Scholar
  123. Woiceshyn, J. (2011). A model for ethical decision making in business, reasoning, intuition and rational moral principle. Journal of Business Ethics, 104, 311–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wyld, D. C., & Jones, C. A. (1997). Importance of context. The ethical work climate construct and models of ethical decision-making–an agenda for research. Journal of Business Ethics, 16, 465–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zabid, A. R. M., & Alsagoff, S. K. (1993). Perceived ethical values of Malaysian managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 12, 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Taylor’s Business SchoolTaylor’s University Lakeside CampusSubang JayaMalaysia
  2. 2.Sunway University, c/o Sunway University Business SchoolPetaling JayaMalaysia

Personalised recommendations