Personality Predictors of Midlife Generativity: A Longitudinal Study
- 38 Downloads
The study aims to broaden the knowledge of the relationship between personality and generativity. The study tests personality predictors of generativity on the basis of longitudinal data and includes not only personality traits but also self-concept variables while examining five of the seven components of generativity within the McAdams and de St. Aubin model. The sample consists of 150 participants from two longitudinal studies (63 men, 87 women; mean age 54.82). Generativity (concern, belief in the species, commitment, action, and narration measured by different methods) was assessed in the last wave of the study, personality traits (measured by NEO-FFI), and self-concept variables (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Self-Concept Clarity Scale) were assessed in previous two stages of the study (at the age of 50 and 40 of the participants). Regression analysis was used to identify unique relationships between variables. From the longitudinal point of view, extraversion is the main predictive factor of later generativity, and openness to experience also contributes to the prediction of generativity. Self-concept variables are not as strong predictors of generativity as personality traits. The only association between variables of self-concept and generativity was found between self-concept clarity and belief in the species.
KeywordsPersonality traits Self-concept Generativity Longitudinal study
This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (Grant No. 15-22474S) and Czech Republic’s support for long-term strategic development of research organization (RVO: 68081740).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The present study was approved by the Institutional Board of the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, and written consent was obtained from participants before commencing all stages of the longitudinal study during adulthood.
- Bakan, D. (1967). On method: Toward a reconstruction of psychological investigation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Blatný, M., & Šolcová, I. (2015). Well-being. In M. Blatný (Ed.), Personality and well-being across the life-span (pp. 20–59). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Chakraborty, N., & Das, S. (2013). Influence of psychiatric morbidity and self-efficacy on midlife generativity. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 4, 1374–1380.Google Scholar
- Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). A theoretical context for adult temperament. In T. D. Wachs & G. A. Kohnstamm (Eds.), Temperament in context (pp. 1–21). London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Emmons, R. A. (2003). The psychology of ultimate concerns: Motivation and spirituality in personality. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H. (1982). The life cycle completed. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Eysenck, H. J. (1959). Manual of the maudsley personality inventory. London: London University Press.Google Scholar
- Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1964). Manual of the eysenck personality inventory. London: London University Press.Google Scholar
- Hřebíčková, M., & Urbánek, T. (2001). NEO pětifaktorový osobnostní inventář (podle NEO five-factor inventory P.T. Costy a R.R. McCraee). Praha: Testcentrum.Google Scholar
- Kokko, K., Rantanen, J., & Pulkkinen, L. (2015). Associations between mental well-being and personality from a life span perspective. In M. Blatný (Ed.), Personality and well-being across the life-span (pp. 134–159). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Kotre, J. (1984). Outliving the self: Generativity and the interpretation of lives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Leung, K., & Bond, M. H. (2008). Psycho-logic and eco-logic: Insights from social axiom dimensions. In F. V. D. Vijver, D. V. Hemert & Y. P. Poortinga (Eds.), Individuals and cultures in multilevel analysis (pp. 197–219). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- McAdams, D. P. (1985). Power, intimacy, and the life story: Personological inquiries into identity. Homewood: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
- McAdams, D. P. (2001). Generativity in midlife. In M. E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development (pp. 395–443). New York: Academic press.Google Scholar
- McAdams, D. P. (2013b). The redemptive self: Stories Americans live by. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2008). The five-factor theory of personality. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 159–180). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Millová, K., & Blatný, M. (2016). Generativity in contemporary empirical research. Ceskoslovenska Psychologie, 60, 609–621.Google Scholar
- Millová, K., Blatný, M., Poláčková, I. S., & Jelínek, M. (2018). Psychometric characteristics of Czech versions of selected generative questionnaires: Internal consistency and factor structure. Ceskoslovenska Psychologie, 62, 119–142.Google Scholar
- Roberts, B. W., Wood, D., & Caspi, A. (2008). The development of personality traits in adulthood. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality (pp. 375–398). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Schwarzer, R. (1993). Measurement of perceived self-efficacy: Psychometric scales for cross-cultural research. Berlin: Freien Universitat.Google Scholar
- Stewart, A. J., & Vandewater, E. A. (1998). The course of generativity. In D. P. McAdams & E. de St. Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult development (pp. 75–100). Washington: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
- Vonkomer, J., & Miglierini, B. (1979). Eysenck personality inventory (manual in Czech). Bratislava: Psychodiagnostické a Didaktické Testy.Google Scholar