Advertisement

Journal of Adult Development

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 190–200 | Cite as

The Relationship of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Anticipated Risky Behaviors in College Students

  • Stacy M. Marengo
  • Jeffrey KlibertEmail author
  • Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling
  • Jacob Warren
  • K. Bryant Smalley
Article
  • 216 Downloads

Abstract

The developmental transition from adolescence to adulthood, a period of time known as emerging adulthood, is marked by great personal growth and interpersonal maturation (Arnett, Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004). Risk-taking behaviors are seen as a significant impediment to positive development during emerging adulthood. However, few researchers have examined how underlying cognitive processes contribute to the development and exacerbation of risk-taking behaviors at this time. In the current study, we examined the multivariate associations between early maladaptive schemas (disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, overvigilance, and inhibition) and expected involvement in five indices of risky behaviors for college women (n = 341) and college men (n = 143). Gender-specific patterns emerged in the prediction of different risk-behavior indices. Early maladaptive schemas accounted for 24% of the variance in men’s anticipated engagement in risky sexual behavior (vs. 9% of women’s). Early maladaptive schemas accounted for 20% of the variance in women’s anticipated engagement in both academic/work and illegal/aggressive risky behaviors (vs. 11 and 9% of men’s). In addition, unique schema domains differentially predicted variance in risky sexual, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, and aggressive/illegal risk behavior for each gender. Gender-sensitive and schema-specific prevention efforts for different types of risky behaviors, often present during emerging adulthood, may be warranted.

Keywords

Emerging adulthood Risk-taking Gender Maladaptive schemas 

References

  1. Alloy, L., & Riskind, J. (2006). Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson, C., Johnsson, K. O., Berglund, M., & Ojehagen, A. (2009). Stress and hazardous alcohol use: Associations with early dropout from university. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 37, 713–719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnett, J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. (2005). The developmental context of substance use in emerging adulthood. Journal of Drug Issues, 35(2), 235–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arria, A., Caldeira, K., O’Grady, K., Vincent, K., Fitzelle, D., Johnson, E., & Wish, E. (2008). Drug exposure opportunities and use patterns among college students: Results of a longitudinal prospective cohort study. Substance Abuse, 29, 19–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Ball, S. A. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral and schema-based models for the treatment of substance use disorders. In L. P. Riso, P. L. du Toit, D. J. Stein & J. E. Young (Eds.), Cognitive schemas and core beliefs in psychological problems: A scientist-practitioner guide (pp. 111–138). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bancroft, J., & Vukadinovic, Z. (2004). Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulse disorder or what? Towards a theoretical model. The Journal of Sex Research, 41, 225–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck, A., Wright, F. D., Newman, C., & Liese, B. (1993). Cognitive therapy of substance abuse. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 885–908.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ben-Zur, H., & Zeidner, M. (2009). Threat to life and risk-taking behaviors: A review of empirical findings and explanatory models. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13(2), 109–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Caetano, R., & Cunradi, R. (2002). Alcohol dependence: A public health perspective. Addiction, 97, 267–269.Google Scholar
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Family health. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/family/college.
  13. Combs-Lane, A. M., & Smith, D. W. (2002). Risk of sexual victimization in college women: The role of behavioral intentions and risk-taking behaviors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(2), 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper, L. M. (2002). Alcohol use and risky sexual behavior among college students and youth: Evaluating the evidence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 14, 101–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 74–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cubbins, L. A., & Tanfer, K. (2000). The influence of gender on sex: A study of men’s and women’s self-reported high risk behavior. Archives in Sex Behavior, 29, 229–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dodge, K. A., Godwin, J., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2013). Social-information-processing patterns mediate the impact of preventive intervention on adolescent antisocial behavior. Psychological Science, 24(4), 456–465.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Malone, P. S., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2008). Testing an idealized dynamic cascade model of the development of serious violence in adolescence. Child Development, 79(6), 1907–1927.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Fromme, K., Katz, E. C., & Rivet, K. (1997). Outcome expectancies and risk-taking behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21(4), 421–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hingson, R. W., Heeren, T., Zakocs, R. C., Kopstein, A., & Wechsler, H. (2002). Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U. S. college students ages 18–24. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63, 136–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirschberger, G., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., Goldenberg, J. L., & Pyszczynski, T. (2002). Gender differences in the willingness to engage in risky behavior: A terror management perspective. Death Studies, 26, 117–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson, V., Gans, S. E., Kerr, S., & LaValle, W. (2010). Managing the transition to college: Family functioning, emotion coping, and adjustment in emerging adulthood. Journal of College Student Development, 51(6), 607–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klibert, J., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Luna, A., & Robichaux, M. (2011). Suicide proneness in college students: Relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation. Death Studies, 35(7), 625–645.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Nelson, D. A., Springer, M. M., Nelson, L. J., & Bean, N. H. (2008). Normative beliefs regarding aggression in emerging adulthood. Social Development, 17, 638–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Paulhus, D. L., Robins, R. W., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Tracy, J. L. (2004). Two replicable suppressor situations in personality research. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(2), 303–328.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3902_7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Perlini, A., & Boychuk, T. L. (2006). Social influence, desirability, and relationship investment: The effects of resourcefulness and sexual permissiveness. Social Behavior and Personality, 34, 593–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rodgers, L. S., & Tennison, L. R. (2009). A preliminary assessment of adjustment disorder among first-year college students. Archives in Psychiatric Nursing, 23, 220–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rolison, M. R., & Scherman, A. (2003). College student risk-taking from three perspectives. Adolescence, 38, 689–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Schaffer, M., Jeglic, E. L., & Stanley, B. (2008). The relationship between suicidal behavior, ideation, and binge drinking among college students. Archives of Suicide Research, 12, 124–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Seal, D. W., & Agostinelli, G. (1996). College students’ perceptions of the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour. AIDS Care, 8, 453–466.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Shorey, R. C., Anderson, S., & Stuart, G. L. (2012a). Gambling and early maladaptive schemas in a treatment-seeking sample of male alcohol users: A preliminary investigation. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment, 11(4), 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shorey, R. C., Anderson, S. E., & Stuart, G. L. (2012b). Gender differences in early maladaptive schemas in a treatment-seeking sample of alcohol-dependent adults. Substance Use & Misuse, 47(1), 108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shorey, R. C., Stuart, G. L., & Anderson, S. (2013). Early maladaptive schemas among young adult male substance abusers: A comparison with a non-clinical group. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44(5), 522–527.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Shorey, R. C., Stuart, G. L., & Anderson, S. (2014). Differences in early maladaptive schemas between a sample of young adult female substance abusers and a non-clinical comparison group. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 21(1), 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (4th ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Stumblingbear, G. P., Klibert, J. J., & Winterowd, C. (2007). Negative self-schemas and emotional distress in college students. In Poster presented at association of behavioral and cognitive therapies 2007 conference, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  37. Sultan, S., Bungener, C., & Andronikof, A. (2002). Individual psychology of risk-taking behaviours in non-adherence. Journal of Risk Research, 5(2), 137–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Young, J. E. (2005). The YSQ-S3 Young Schema Questionnaire, Short Form. In J. E. Young (Ed.) Schema Therapy Complete Packet: Workshop handouts. New York: Schema Therapy Institute.Google Scholar
  39. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stacy M. Marengo
    • 1
  • Jeffrey Klibert
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling
    • 3
  • Jacob Warren
    • 4
  • K. Bryant Smalley
    • 2
  1. 1.Northwestern State UniversityNatchitochesUSA
  2. 2.Georgia Southern UniversityStatesboroUSA
  3. 3.University of South AlabamaMobileUSA
  4. 4.Mercer University School of MedicineMaconUSA

Personalised recommendations