Advertisement

The Perception of Emotions in Spoken Language in Undergraduates with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preserved Social Skill

  • Boaz M. Ben-DavidEmail author
  • Esther Ben-Itzchak
  • Gil Zukerman
  • Gili Yahav
  • Michal Icht
Original Paper

Abstract

Identifying emotions in speech is based on the interaction of lexical content and prosody. This may be disrupted in individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HF-ASD). Undergraduates with HF-ASD (n = 20) and matched typically developed peers (n = 20) were tested using the (Hebrew) Test for Rating of Emotions in Speech. Participants rated the degree to which a target-emotion is present in spoken sentences, in which the emotional-lexical and -prosodic content appear in different combinations from trial to trial. No group differences were found in measures of emotion-identification, selective-attention (focusing on one target-channel) and integration. These preserved abilities can partially explain the high levels of independence and self-control characterizing students with HF-ASD. Support programs may rely on such skills to improve social interactions.

Keywords

Emotion Speech Autism spectrum disorder High-functioning ASD Lexical content Prosodic content 

Notes

Author Contributions

All authors contributed to the research equally. BBD and MI take the leading author responsibility.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (include name of committee + reference number) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

10803_2019_4297_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. Adams, N. C., & Jarrold, C. (2009). Inhibition and the validity of the Stroop task for children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,39, 1112–1121.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, D. K., Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P. S., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., … Pickles, A. (2007). Patterns of growth in verbal abilities among children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(4), 594.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker, K. F., Montgomery, A. A., & Abramson, R. (2010). Brief report: Perception and lateralization of spoken emotion by youths with high-functioning forms of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,40(1), 123–129.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnard-Brak, L., Brewer, A., Chesnut, S., Richman, D., & Schaeffer, A. M. (2016). The sensitivity and specificity of the social communication questionnaire for autism spectrum with respect to age. Autism Research,9(8), 838–845.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Jolliffe, A. T. (1997). Is there a “language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults, and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition,4(3), 311–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high- functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,31(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Stone, V., & Rutherford, M. (1999). A mathematician, a physicist and a computer scientist with Asperger syndrome: Performance on folk psychology and folk physics tests. Neurocase,5(6), 475–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrett, L. F., Mesquita, B., & Gendron, M. (2011). Context in emotion perception. Current Directions in Psychological Science,20(5), 286–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben-David, B. M., Gal-Rosenblum, S., van Lieshout, P. H. H. M., & Shakuf, V. (2019). Age-related differences in the perception of emotion in spoken language: The relative roles of prosody and semantics. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research,62, 1188–1202.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Ben-David, B. M., Malkin, G., & Erel, H. (2018). Ageism and neuropsychological tests. In L. Ayalon & C. Tesch-Römer (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on ageism (pp. 277–297). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ben-David, B. M., Moral, M. I., Namasivayam, A. K., Erel, H., van Lieshout, P. H. H. M. (2016a). Linguistic and emotional-valence characteristics of reading passages for clinical use and research. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 49, 1–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Ben-David, B. M., Multani, N., Shakuf, V., Rudzicz, F., & van Lieshout, P. H. (2016b). Prosody and semantics are separate but not separable channels in the perception of emotional speech: Test for rating of emotions in speech. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research,59(1), 72–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Ben-David, B. M., & Schneider, B. A. (2009). A sensory origin for aging effects in the color-word Stroop task: An analysis of studies. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition,16, 505–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ben-David, B. M., & Schneider, B. A. (2010). A sensory origin for aging effects in the color-word Stroop task: Simulating age-related changes in color-vision mimic age-related changes in Stroop. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition,17, 730–746.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Ben-David, B. M., Thayapararajah, A., & van Lieshout, P. H. (2013). A resource of validated digital audio recordings to assess identification of emotion in spoken language after a brain injury. Brain Injury,27(2), 248–250.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Ben-David, B. M., van Lieshout, P. H., & Leszcz, T. (2011). A resource of validated affective and neutral sentences to assess identification of emotion in spoken language after a brain injury. Brain Injury,25(2), 206–220.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Ben-David, B.M, Zukerman, G., Fostick, L., & Icht, M. (In preparation). The effect of sleep deprivation on the perception of emotions in spoken language. Google Scholar
  21. Berkovits, I., Hancock, G. R., & Nevitt, J. (2000). Bootstrap resampling approaches for repeated measure designs: Relative robustness to sphericity and normality violations. Educational and Psychological Measurement,60(6), 877–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blanca, M. J., Arnau, J., López-Montiel, D., Bono, R., & Bendayan, R. (2013). Skewness and kurtosis in real data samples. Methodology,9(2), 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boucher, J. (2012). Research review: Structural language in autistic spectrum disorder—Characteristics and causes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,53(3), 219–233.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, K. R. (2012). Institutional practices that support students with autism spectrum disorders in a postsecondary educational setting. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green.Google Scholar
  25. Cain, M. K., Zhang, Z., & Yuan, K. H. (2017). Univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis for measuring nonnormality: Prevalence, influence and estimation. Behavior Research Methods,49(5), 1716–1735.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Chan, E. K. (2014). Standards and guidelines for validation practices: Development and evaluation of measurement instruments. In B. Zumbo & E. K. H. Chan (Eds.), Validity and validation in social, behavioral, and health sciences (pp. 9–24). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Charbonneau, G., Bertone, A., Lepore, F., Nassim, M., Lassonde, M., Mottron, L., et al. (2013). Multilevel alterations in the processing of audio–visual emotion expressions in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychologia,51(5), 1002–1010.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. de Vries, M., & Geurts, H. M. (2012). Cognitive flexibility in ASD; Task switching with emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,42(12), 2558–2568.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Diehl, J. J., Bennetto, L., Watson, D., Gunlogson, C., & McDonough, J. (2008). Resolving ambiguity: A psycholinguistic approach to understanding prosody processing in high-functioning autism. Brain and Language,106(2), 144–152.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Doi, H., Fujisawa, T. X., Kanai, C., Ohta, H., Yokoi, H., Iwanami, A., … Shinohara, K. (2013). Recognition of facial expressions and prosodic cues with graded emotional intensities in adults with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(9), 2099–2113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eigsti, I. M., & Bennetto, L. (2009). Grammaticality judgments in autism spectrum disorders: Deviance or delay. Journal of Child Language,19, 1–23.Google Scholar
  32. Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion,6(3–4), 169–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elkayam, A. (2018). Perception of emotions in speech in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). MA thesis, IDC (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  34. Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics,16(1), 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods,39, 175–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gately, S. E. (2008). Facilitating reading comprehension for students on the autism spectrum. Teaching Exceptional Children,40(3), 40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gelbar, N. W., Smith, I., & Reichow, B. (2014). Systematic review of articles describing experience and supports of individuals with autism enrolled in college and university programs. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,44(10), 2593–2601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Geurts, H. M., Begeer, S., & Stockmann, L. (2009). Brief report: Inhibitory control of socially relevant stimuli in children with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,39(11), 1603.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Geurts, H. M., van den Bergh, S. F. W. M., & Ruzzano, L. (2014). Prepotent response inhibition and interference control in autism spectrum disorders: Two meta-analyses. Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research,7(4), 407–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Globerson, E., Amir, N., Kishon-Rabin, L., & Golan, O. (2015). Prosody recognition in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: From psychoacoustics to cognition. Autism Research,8(2), 153–163.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Golan, O., Baron-Cohen, S., Hill, J. J., & Rutherford, M. D. (2007). The ‘reading the mind in the voice’ test-revised: A study of complex emotion recognition in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,37, 1096–1106.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Gotham, K., Marvin, A. R., Taylor, J. L., Warren, Z., Anderson, C. M., Law, P. A., et al. (2015). Characterizing the daily life, needs, and priorities of adults with autism spectrum disorder from Interactive Autism Network data. Autism,19(7), 794–804.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grzadzinski, R., Huerta, M., & Lord, C. (2013). DSM-5 and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): An opportunity for identifying ASD subtypes. Molecular Autism,4(1), 12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hadjikhani, N., & de Gelder, B. (2003). Seeing fearful body expressions activates the fusiform cortex and amygdala. Current Biology,13(24), 2201–2205.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Happé, F. G. (1995). The role of age and verbal ability in the theory of mind task performance of subjects with autism. Child Development,66(3), 843–855.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Harris, P. L. (1989). Children and emotion: The development of psychological understanding. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  47. Helles, A., Wallinius, M., Gillberg, I. C., Gillberg, C., & Billstedt, E. (2016). Asperger syndrome in childhood—Personality dimensions in adult life: Temperament, character and outcome trajectories. British Journal of Psychiatry Open,2(3), 210–216.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Hill, E. L. (2004). Evaluating the theory of executive dysfunction in autism. Developmental Review,24(2), 189–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hobson, R. P. (1993). Autism and the development of mind. East Sussex, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.Google Scholar
  50. Hudepohl, M. B., Robins, D. L., King, T. Z., & Henrich, C. C. (2015). The role of emotion perception in adaptive functioning of people with autism spectrum disorders. Autism,19(1), 107–112.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Icht, M., & Ben-David, B. M. (2014). Oral-diadochokinesis rates across languages: English and Hebrew norms. Journal of Communication Disorders,48, 27–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Ishii, K., Reyes, J. A., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Spontaneous attention to word content versus emotional tone: Differences among three cultures. Psychological Science,14, 39–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Jackson, S. L. J., Hart, L., Brown, J. T., & Volkmar, F. R. (2018). Brief report: Self-reported academic, social, and mental health experiences of post-secondary students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of A utism and Developmental Disorders,48(3), 643–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jacob, H., Brück, C., Plewnia, C., & Wildgruber, D. (2014). Cerebral processing of prosodic emotional signals: Evaluation of a network model using rTMS. PLoS ONE,9(8), e105509.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones, C. R., Pickles, A., Falcaro, M., Marsden, A. J., Happé, F., Scott, S. K., … Simonoff, E. (2011). A multimodal approach to emotion recognition ability in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(3), 275–285.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Kitayama, S., & Ishii, K. (2002). Word and voice: Spontaneous attention to emotional utterances in two languages. Cognition and Emotion,16, 29–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kleinman, J., Marciano, P. L., & Ault, R. L. (2001). Advanced theory of mind in high-functioning adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,31(1), 29–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Knight, S., & Heinrich, A. (2018). Visual inhibition measures predict speech-in-noise perception only in people with low levels of education. Frontiers in Psychology,9, 2779.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Kouo, J. L., & Egel, A. L. (2016). The effectiveness of interventions in teaching emotion recognition to children with autism spectrum disorder. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,3(3), 254–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kujala, T., Lepistö, T., Nieminen-von Wendt, T., Näätänen, P., & Nätänen, R. (2005). Neurophysiological evidence for cortical discrimination impairment of prosody in Asperger syndrome. Neuroscience Letters,383, 260–266.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Larsen, R. J., Mercer, K. A., & Balota, D. A. (2006). Lexical characteristics of words used in emotional Stroop experiments. Emotion,6(1), 62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Laukka, P. (2003). Categorical perception of emotion in vocal expression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1000(1), 283–287.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Leshem, R., van Lieshout, P. H., Ben-David, S., & Ben-David, B. M. (2019). Does emotion matter? The role of alexithymia in violent recidivism: A systematic literature review. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health,29(2), 94–110.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Levy, O, Oron, Y., Goldfarb, A., Shakuf, V., and Ben-David, B.M. (March 2018). What and how you said it: People with tinnitus perceive emotional speech differently. In Annual meeting of the Israeli Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Society, Eilat, Israel.Google Scholar
  65. Lindner, J. L., & Rosen, L. A. (2006). Decoding of emotion through facial expression, prosody and verbal content in children and adolescents with Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,36, 769–777.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Loveland, K. A., Tunali-Kotoski, B. E. L. G. I. N., Chen, Y. R., Ortegon, J., Pearson, D. A., Brelsford, K. A., et al. (1997). Emotion recognition in autism: Verbal and nonverbal information. Development and Psychopathology,9(3), 579–593.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Mama, Y., Fostik, L., & Icht, M. (2018). The impact of different background noises on the Production Effect: Evidence for costs and benefits in free recall. Acta Psychologica,185, 235–242.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Mehrabian, A., & Wiener, M. (1967). Decoding of inconsistent communications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,6, 109–114.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Morton, J. B., & Trehub, S. E. (2001). Children’s understanding of emotion in speech. Child Development,72, 834–843.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Nation, K., Clarke, P., Wright, B., & Williams, C. (2006). Patterns of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,36, 911–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Newman, L., Wagner, M., Knokey, A. M., Marder, C., Nagle, K., Shaver, D., … Schwarting, M. (2011). The post-high school outcomes of young adults with disabilities up to 8 years after high school. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) (NCSER 2011-3005). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Available at www.nlts2.org/reports/.
  72. Nitsan, G., Wingfield, A., Lavie, L., & Ben-David, B. M. (2019). Differences in working memory capacity affect online spoken word recognition: Evidence from eye-movements. Invited paper in Trends in Hearing,23, 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2331216519839624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Connor, K. (2007). Brief report: Impaired identification of discrepancies between expressive faces and voices in adults with Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,37, 2008–2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Oron, Y., Levy, O., Avivi-Reich, M., Shakuf, V., Goldfarb, A., Handzel, O., & Ben-David, B. M. (2019). Tinnitus affects the relative roles of semantics and prosody in the perception of emotions in spoken language. International Journal of Audiology.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14992027.2019.1677952.Google Scholar
  75. Panerai, S., Tasca, D., Ferri, R., Genitori D’Arrigo, V., & Elia, M. (2014). Executive functions and adaptive behaviour in autism spectrum disorders with and without intellectual disability. Psychiatry Journal,2014, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Paul, R., Augustyn, A., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2005). Perception and production of prosody by speakers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,35, 201–220.Google Scholar
  77. Pell, M. D., Monetta, L., Paulmann, S., & Kotz, S. A. (2009). Recognizing emotions in a foreign language. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior,33(2), 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Philip, R. C. M., Whalley, H. C., Stanfield, A. C., Sprengelmeyer, R., Santos, I. M., Young, A. W., … Hall, J. (2010). Deficits in facial, body movement and vocal emotional processing in autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Medicine, 40(11), 1919–1929.‏PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ploog, B. O., Brooks, P. J., Scharf, A., & Aum, S. (2014). Perception of the prosody and content of sentences in an unfamiliar language in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders,8(7), 775–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Randi, J., Newman, T., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2010). Teaching children with autism to read for meaning: Challenges and possibilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,40, 890–902.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Raue, K., & Lewis, L. (2011). Students with disabilities at degree-granting postsecondary institutions (NCES 2011–018). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  82. Rutherford, M. D., Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2002). Reading the mind in the voice: A study with normal adults and adults with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,32, 189–194.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The social communication questionnaire: Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  84. Sanders, J. L. (2009). Qualitative or quantitative differences between Asperger’s disorder and autism? Historical considerations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,39(11), 1560.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Scherer, K. R., Banse, R., & Wallbott, H. G. (2001). Emotion inferences from vocal expression correlate across languages and cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,32(1), 76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schwean, V., & Montgomery, J. M. (2015). Executive functions in young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities,32(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  87. Senokossoff, G. W. (2016). Developing reading comprehension skills in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder: A review of the research, 1990–2012. Reading & Writing Quarterly,32(3), 223–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shakuf, V., Gal-Rosenblum, S., van Lieshout, P. H. H. M., & Ben-David, B. M. (2016). The Psychophysics of aging: In emotional speech, older adults attend to semantic, while younger adults to prosody. Fechner Day,32(1), 32–33.Google Scholar
  89. Spain, D., & Blainey, S. H. (2015). Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Autism,19(7), 874–886.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Stewart, M. E., McAdam, C., Ota, M., Peppé, S., & Cleland, J. (2013). Emotional recognition in autism spectrum conditions from voices and faces. Autism,17(1), 6–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Uljarevic, M., & Hamilton, A. (2013). Recognition of emotions in autism: A formal meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,43(7), 1517–1526.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Goudreau, D., Cicchetti, D. V., Paul, R., & Cohen, D. J. (1987). Social deficits in autism: An operational approach using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,26(2), 156–161.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Wechsler, D. (2008). WAIS-IV technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  94. Wingate, M., Kirby, R.S., Pettygrove, S., Cunniff, C, Schulz, E, Ghosh, T, … Wright, V. (2014). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 63(SS02), 1–21.Google Scholar
  95. Zupan, B., Neumann, D., Babbage, D. R., & Willer, B. (2009). The importance of vocal affect to bimodal processing of emotion: Implications for individuals with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Communication Disorders,42(1), 1–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication, Aging and Neuropsychology Lab (CANlab), Baruch Ivcher School of PsychologyInterdisciplinary Center (IDC) HerzliyaHerzliyaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Speech-Language PathologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Rehabilitation Sciences InstituteUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Toronto Rehabilitation InstituteUniversity Health Networks (UHN)TorontoCanada
  5. 5.Department of Communication DisordersAriel UniversityArielIsrael
  6. 6.The Autism Center, Department of PediatricsAssaf Harofeh Medical CenterZerifinIsrael

Personalised recommendations