Using a Virtual Manipulative Intervention Package to Support Maintenance in Teaching Subtraction with Regrouping to Students with Developmental Disabilities
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To live independently, it is critical that students with disabilities maintain the basic mathematical skills they have acquired so they may apply these skills in daily life. To support maintenance of mathematical skills among students with developmental disabilities, the researchers used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effectiveness of the VRA instructional sequence with fading support in teaching subtraction with regrouping to four students with developmental disabilities. A functional relation was found between the VRA instructional sequence with fading support and students’ accuracy in solving the problems. Students also maintained the skill up to 6 weeks after the intervention.
KeywordsMathematics Virtual manipulatives Developmental disabilities Maintenance
This study was one of three stand-alone studies included in JP’s doctoral dissertation. This study was supported by a doctoral dissertation fellowship from Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education at Michigan State University. The authors would like to thank the teachers and students who participated in this research.
JP conceived of and designed the study, conducted research sessions, collected data, analyzed and interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript. ECB contributed to the study’s design, helped draft the manuscript, and edited the manuscript. JPS contributed to and edited the manuscript. All authors read, edited, and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent and assent were obtained from all individual participants included in the study after the Institutional Review Board approved of the study.
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