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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 49, Issue 11, pp 4603–4625 | Cite as

Characteristics, Early Development and Outcome of Parent-Reported Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Sofie BoterbergEmail author
  • Rudy Van Coster
  • Herbert Roeyers
Original Paper

Abstract

This study explored regression patterns in 100 children with ASD (3–11 years) using several approaches to enhance the validity of retrospective parent report. Both early development and outcome were examined in regression groups defined by 36 months age cut-off and two underlying empirical patterns based on type and onset age. Results over regression groups were generally consistent. During early development, children with regression showed a similar amount of social atypicalities and stereotyped behaviour as compared to children without regression. However, parents indicated less communication skills which could be a valuable predictor of regression. Development after regression was characterised by early language delay and more restricted and repetitive behaviour. The findings provide insight into the diagnosis and prognosis of regression in ASD.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Onset patterns Regression Early development Outcome 

Abbreviations

ADI-R

Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised

ADOS-2

Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale-Second Edition

APA

American Psychiatric Association

ASD

Autism Spectrum Disorder

ASD-NR

Children without regression

ASD-R

Children with ASD who ever experienced a regression

ASD-R > 36M

Children with ASD and regression after 36 months

ASD-R ≤ 36M

Children with ASD and regression before or at 36 months

ASD-R-L/S/M

Children characterised by language and/or social and/or mixed (language and/or social sometimes in combination with motor and/or adaptive) regression

ASD-R-NL/NS

Children characterised by non-language or non-social (or adaptive and/or motor) regression

BIC

Bayesian Information Criterion

CSS

Calibrated Severity Score (ADOS-2)

CDI

Communicative Development Inventories

CELF preschool-2

Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition

CELF-4

Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

CS

Component Score (M-ABC-2)

EDQ

Early Development Questionnaire

ES

Effect Size

FET

Fischer’s Exact Test

IQ

Intelligence Quotient

LCA

Latent Class Analysis

M-ABC-2

Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition

RSQ

Regression Supplemental Questions

RVI

Regression Validity Interview

SCQ

Social Communication Questionnaire

SES

Socioeconomic Status

SRS-2

Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition

WNV

Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are very grateful to the parents and children who participated in the present study and would also like to express our gratitude to the reviewers who commented on previous versions of the manuscript.

Authors Contributions

Recruitment, data collection, analyses and interpretation was done by SB. HR was supervising the recruitment and data collection and provided substantial feedback on the analyses and interpretation of the data. He was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. RVC also supervised the research and provided additional feedback on the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

Sofie Boterberg is supported by the Research Foundation—Flanders (FWO—1163319N).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics Approval

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University Ghent (Belgium) on the 3rd of August 2015. Participation was voluntary and the confidentiality of the child and caregiver(s) was protected.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individuals participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10803_2019_4183_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 1 (DOCX 22 kb)

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Paediatric Neurology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium

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