Screening of Broader Autism Phenotype Symptoms in Siblings: Support for a Distinct Model of Symptomatology
- 152 Downloads
Research on siblings of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that some phenotypic presentation, known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP), is common among siblings without an ASD diagnosis (e.g., Ruzich et al. in Autism Res 9(6):658–665, 2016). Whereas the symptoms that underlie both ASD and the BAP share commonality, the structure of these symptoms in youth with ASD and their siblings may differ. The current study assessed whether differences arise in the factor structure of the Children’s Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) between youth with ASD and their siblings in a sample of 221 sibling dyads. Results suggest similar factor structures for ASD and BAP; however, number of symptoms endorsed, as opposed to the degree of severity, may better differentiate BAP.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Broader autism phenotype Siblings
This research did not receive any specific Grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Baker, A. R. (2002). The invisible end of the spectrum: Shadows, residues, ‘BAP’, and the female Aspergers experience. Paper presented to Inaugural World Autism Congress “Unity through Diversity”, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
- Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2005). The social responsiveness scale manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Constantino, J. N., Lajonchere, C., Lutz, M., Gray, T., Abbacchi, A., McKenna, K., … & Todd, R. D. (2006). Autistic social impairment in the siblings of children with pervasive developmental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(2), 294–296.Google Scholar
- de Bildt, A., Mulder, E. J., Hoekstra, P. J., van Lang, N. D., Minderaa, R. B., & Hartman, C. A. (2009). Validity of the Children’s Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in children with intellectual disability: Comparing the CSBQ with ADI-R, ADOS, and clinical DSM-IV-TR classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(10), 1464–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- de Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Ketelaars, C., Kraijer, D., Mulder, E., Volkmar, F., et al. (2004). Interrelationship between autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic (ADOS-G), autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R), and the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Geluk, C. A., Jansen, L., Vermeiren, R., Doreleijers, T. A., van Domburgh, L., de Bildt, A., … & Hartman, C. A. (2012). Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees: Longitudinal association with delinquent behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(2), 160–167.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lee, H., Marvin, A. R., Watson, T., Piggot, J., Law, J. K., Law, P. A., … Nelson, S. F. (2010). Accuracy of phenotyping of autistic children based on Internet implemented parent report. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B, 153B(6), 1119–1126.Google Scholar
- Marvin, A. R., Law, P. A., Law, J. K., Arthur, E. M., Mortenson, E. L., Abbacchi, A. M., … Constantino, J. N. (2014). Non-verbal children with ASD (NV-ASD): Validating a registry and characterizing a population. Presentation at the International Meeting for Autism Research (Atlanta, GA).Google Scholar
- Nijmeijer, J. S., Hoekstra, P. J., Minderaa, R. B., Buitelaar, J. K., Altink, M. E., Buschgens, C. J. M., … & Hartman, C. A. (2009). PDD symptoms in ADHD, an independent familial trait? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(3), 443–453.Google Scholar
- Qualtrics. (2018). Online sample. Retrieved from https://success.qualtrics.com/request-pricing-online-sample.html?_ga=2.217136342.1915722433.1533347627-436553940.1533347627.
- Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Manual for the Social Communication Questionnaire. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- van Dongen, E. V., von Rhein, D., O’Dwyer, L., Franke, B., Hartman, C. A., Heslenfeld, D. J., … & Buitelaar, J. (2015). Distinct effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward anticipation in participants with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: A cross-sectional study. Molecular Autism, 6(1), 48–60.Google Scholar