The Association Between Serum Vitamin D3 Levels and Autism Among Jordanian Boys

  • Loai AlzghoulEmail author
  • Laith N. AL-Eitan
  • Mohammad Aladawi
  • Maher Odeh
  • Osama Abu Hantash
Original Paper


This study assesses the correlation between vitamin-D deficiency and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Jordan. We performed a case–controlled cross-sectional analysis to assess vitamin D levels in 83 children with ASD aged less than 8 years old compared to 106 healthy controls. In addition, the association between vitamin D deficiencies and gastrointestinal (GI) complains and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities commonly found in children with ASD was investigated. Vitamin D levels in ASD patients were significantly lower. Also, Vitamin D levels in ASD patients had significant correlation with GI complains, but no correlation between vitamin D levels and Ca2+or EEG abnormalities was detected. These data suggest a possible role for vitamin D deficiency in the pathophysiology of ASD.


Autism Vitamin D3 Neurodevelopmental EEG Calcium GI 



The present study was supported by the Deanship of Academic Research, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Also this work was done with the help of Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research for its facilities and equipment’s.

Author Contributions

LA designed the method study and supervised the study. LA, LNA-E, MA lead the implementation of the method, performed the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. LA, LNA-E, MA, MO and OAH helped with the interpretation, and description of the results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, School of MedicineThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Department of Applied Biological ScienceJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  3. 3.School of MedicineThe University of JordanAmmanJordan

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