The Role of Emotion Regulation on Co-occurring Psychopathology in Emerging Adults with ASD
- 62 Downloads
Deficits in emotion regulation (ER) are commonly observed in individuals with ASD and may contribute to elevated rates of psychiatric comorbidity. The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between ER (self-and caregiver-reported) and clinician-assigned mood and anxiety disorders in emerging adults with ASD (n = 27). Individuals with an anxiety or mood disorder demonstrated significantly greater involuntary engagement (IE) for ER than those without an anxiety or unipolar depression diagnosis. Furthermore, those without anxiety or depression reported significantly more voluntary engagement (VE). However, consistent with prior findings outside of ASD, IE appears closely associated with internalizing diagnoses, even when VE is also utilized. Research on clinical approaches to reduce reliance on involuntary approaches to emotion management should be pursued.
KeywordsEmotion regulation Comorbidity Emerging adulthood Autism spectrum disorder
ASC, ICS, and SWW conceived of the study. ASC and ICS drafted the manuscript. CAM participated in study design, data analyses, and manuscript writing. SWW directed the study, oversaw data collection, helped with analyses, and contributed to manuscript development.
This study was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant No. R34MH104337, White).
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.Google Scholar
- Baio, J., Wiggins, L., Christensen, D. L., Maenner, M. J., Daniels, J., Warren, Z.,… Dowling, N. F. (2018). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network 11 sites, United States, 2014. Surveillance Summaries, 67(6), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6706a1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Conklin, L. R., Cassiello-Robbins, C., Brake, C. A., Sauer-Zavala, S., Farchione, T. J., Ciraulo, D. A., & Barlow, D. H. (2015). Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 73, 124–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2015.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Connor-Smith, J. K., Compas, B. E., Wadsworth, M. E., Thomsen, A. H., & Saltzman, H. (2000). Response to stress in adolescence: Measurement of coping and involuntary stress responses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 976–992. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.6.976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Happé, F., Booth, R., Charlton, R., & Hughes, C. (2006). Executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Examining profiles across domains and ages. Brain and Cognition, 61(1), 25–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2006.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hong, J., Bishop-Fitzpatrick, L., Smith, L. E., Greenberg, J. S., & Mailick, M. R. (2016). Factors associated with subjective quality of life of adults with autism spectrum disorder: Self-report versus maternal reports. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(4), 1368–1378. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2678-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (2nd edn.). Torrance: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Mazefsky, C. A., Borue, X., Day, T. N., & Minshew, N. J. (2014). Emotion regulation patterns in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: Comparison to typically developing adolescents and association with psychiatric symptoms. Autism Research, 7(3), 344–354. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mazefsky, C. A., Herrington, J., Siegal, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B. B., Scahill, L., & White, S. W. (2013). The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(7), 679–688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.05.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Merikangas, K. R., He, J., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., Benjet, C., Georgiades, K., & Swendsen, J. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication—Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980–989. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Salazar, F., Baird, G., Chandler, S., Tseng, E., O’sullivan, T., Howlin, P.,… Simonoff, E. (2015). Co-occurring psychiatric disorders in preschool and elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(8), 2283–2294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2361-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Salters-Pedneault, K., Roemer, L., Tull, M. T., Rucker, L., & Mennin, D. S. (2006). Evidence of broad deficits in emotion regulation associated with chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30(4), 469–480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9055-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996). The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children for DSM-IV: (Child and parent versions). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2011). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II) (2nd edn.). San Antonio: NCS Pearson.Google Scholar
- White, S. W., Elias, R., Capriola-Hall, N. N., Smith, I. C., Conner, C. M., Asselin, S. B., et al. (2017). Development of a college transition and support program for students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(10), 3082–3078. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3236-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wigham, S., Barton, S., Parr, J. R., & Rodgers, J. (2017). A systematic review of the rates of depression in children and adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(4), 267–287. https://doi.org/10.1080/19315864.2017.1299267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zimmermann, P., & Iwanski, A. (2014). Emotion regulation from early adolescence to emerging adulthood and middle adulthood: Age differences, gender differences, and emotion-specific developmental variations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38(2), 182–194. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025413515405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar