Development and Validation of the Ability in Behavior Assessment and Interventions for Teachers Using Delphi Technique and Rasch Analysis
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and behavior interventions have been effective in the management of challenging behavior among children with developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorders. Research suggests the need for valid measurement instruments for verifying, calibrating and scoring competence in FBA and behavior interventions. The validation for the Ability in Behaviour Assessment and Interventions for Teachers (ABAIT) adopted the Delphi method for developing consensus followed by the application of Rasch Measurement Model (RMM). RMM among 292 special educators reported appropriate infit (0.84–1.11), outfit (0.94–1.05), and item separation reliability (0.99), though some items reported low point-biserial correlation. The ABAIT was developed with expert consensus and was found to have a suitable fit with RMM.
KeywordsScale validation Teacher training Autism spectrum disorders Functional behavior assessments and interventions Rasch Measurement Model
This research study is supported by the Office of Education Research – National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University (Grant No. OER 18/14 AD).
AD contributed to the conceptualization of the study, data collection, interpretation of results, manuscript preparation and critically reviewed the manuscript. MT contributed to the data collection, interpretation of the results, and manuscript preparation. SA contributed to data analyses, interpretation of the results, preparation of the manuscript and critically reviewed the manuscript. RN contributed to the conceptualization of the study, data analyses, interpretation of results, manuscript preparation and critically reviewed the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2013). Applied behaviour analysis for teachers (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Community Report on Autism. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/documents/comm-report-autism-deeper-dive.pdf.
- Conroy, M. A., Asmus, J. M., & Sellers, J. A. (2005). Using an antecedent-based intervention to decrease automatically reinforced stereotypic behavior in a general education classroom: A case study. Focus on Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 223–230. https://doi.org/10.1177/10883576050200040401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crone, D. A., Hawken, L. S., & Bergstrom, M. K. (2007). A demonstration of training, implementing, and using functional behavioral assessment in 10 elementary and middle school settings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(1), 15–29. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007070090010301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dukes, C., Rosenberg, H., & Brady, M. (2008). Effects of training in functional behavior assessment. International Journal of Special Education, 23(1), 163–173.Google Scholar
- Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y. J., Kim, Y. S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C., … Fombonne, E. (2012). Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Research, 5, 160–179. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.239.
- Gable, R. A., Tonelson, S. W., & Sheth, M. (2012). Importance, usage, and preparedness to implement evidence-based practices for students with emotional disabilities: A comparison of knowledge and skills of special education and general education teachers. Education and Treatment of Children, 35(4), 499–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goodwin, C. J. (2009). Research in psychology: Methods and design. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Hemmeter, M. L., Ostrosky, M., & Fox, L. (2006). Social and emotional foundations for early learning: A conceptual model for intervention. School Psychology Review, 35(4), 583–601.Google Scholar
- Hsu, C. C., & Sandford, B. A. (2007). The Delphi technique: Making sense of consensus. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 12(10), 1–8.Google Scholar
- Johnston, S. S., & O’Neill, R. E. (2001). Searching for effectiveness and efficiency in conducting functional assessments: A review and proposed process for teachers and other practitioners. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(4), 205–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/108835760101600402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Keeves, J. P., & Alagumalai, S. (1999). New approach to measurement. In G. N. Masters & J. P. Keeves (Eds.), Advances in measurement and educational research and assessment (pp. 23–42). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
- Kern, L., Hilt, A. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). An evaluation of the functional behavioral assessment process used with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 27, 440–452.Google Scholar
- Kurtz, P. F., Boelter, E. W., Jarmolowicz, D. P., Chin, M. D., & Hagopian, L. P. (2011). An analysis of functional communication training as an empirically supported treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 2935–2942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.05.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Luiselli, J. K., Bass, J. D., & Whitcomb, S. A. (2010). Teaching applied behavior analysis knowledge competencies to direct-care service providers: Outcome assessment and social validation of a training program. Behavior modification, 34, 403–414. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445510383526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCarthy, J., Hemmings, C., Kravariti, E., Dworzynski, K., Holt, G., Bouras, N., et al. (2010). Challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 362–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2009.10.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Myers, C. L., & Holland, K. L. (2000). Classroom behavioral interventions: Do teachers consider the function of the behavior? Psychology in the Schools. 37(3), 271–280. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(200005)37:3%3C271::AID-PITS7%3E3.0.CO;2-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peck Peterson, S. M., Caniglia, C., Jo Royster, A., Macfarlane, E., Plowman, K., Baird, S. J., et al. (2005). Blending functional communication training and choice making to improve task engagement and decrease problem behaviour. Educational Psychology, 25, 257–274. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341042000301193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pindiprolu, S. S., Peterson, S. M., & Berglof, H. (2007). School personnel’s professional development needs and skill level with functional behavior assessments in ten Midwestern states in the United States: analysis and issues. Journal of International Association of Special Education, 8, 31–42.Google Scholar
- Stormont, M., Lewis, T. J., Beckner, R., & Johnson, N. W. (2008). Implementing systems of positive behaviour support systems in early childhood and elementary settings. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
- Tobin, T. J., & Crone, D. A. (2003). Reliability of a functional assessment knowledge test. Unpublished manuscript, University of Oregon, Eugene.Google Scholar
- Waugh, R. F., & Chapman, E. S. (2005). An analysis of dimensionality using factor analysis (true-score theory) and Rasch measurement: What is the difference? Which method is better? Journal of Applied Measurement, 6(1), 80–99.Google Scholar
- Yu, C. H., Popp, S. O., DiGangi, S., & Jannasch-Pennell, A. (2007). Assessing unidimensionality: A comparison of Rasch modeling, parallel analysis, and TETRAD. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 12(14), 1–18.Google Scholar