Brief Report: Sex Differences in ASD Diagnosis—A Brief Report on Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behaviors
Previous research found repetitive and restricted behaviors (RRBs) were less predictive of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in females, indicating the diagnostic construct may not adequately describe RRB presentations in females. This mixed-methods study investigated the female presentation of RRBs, namely restricted interests, in a clinic sample of 125 participants (n = 40 female; ages 2–83 years; 75 ASD). RRB severity did not differ between sexes, t = 1.69, p = 0.094, though male participants scored higher on the Restricted Behavior subscale. Qualitatively, females demonstrated a narrower range of restricted interests and expressed them in a socially oriented manner compared to males. The results suggest unique quantitative and qualitative sex differences in RRB profiles that could shed light on the female ASD phenotype.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Restricted interests Sex differences Female Repetitive behaviors Assessment
We would like to acknowledge the following sources for their support: the Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research, which is funded by the Institute for Society, Culture and Environment, the Fralin Life Science Institute, the College of Science, and the Psychology Department of Virginia Tech.
The research idea, introduction, method, data analysis, and results were contributions of T.C. McFayden. The qualitative data coding, discussion, data analysis validity, and overall edits were contributions of A.E. Muskett and J. Albright. Edits and the database source were contributions of A. Scarpa.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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