Advertisement

Responses to Vignettes Depicting Friendship Transgressions: Similarities and Differences in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Kristen Bottema-BeutelEmail author
  • Caitlin Malloy
  • Josephine Cuda
  • So Yoon Kim
  • Julie MacEvoy
Original Paper

Abstract

We examined children’s responses to vignettes depicting a child making one of four friendship transgressions; failing to provide validation, failing to provide help, being an unreliable partner, and betrayal. Twenty elementary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 21 typically developing (TD) students participated. Children rated emotional responses, the strategies they would use following each transgression, interpretations of transgressions, and goals of their responses. Children with ASD rated sadness lower than TD children, and rated verbal aggression strategies higher than TD children. There were several significant correlations between emotional responses and goals, strategies, and interpretations in the ASD group. Betrayal was considered the most severe transgression. These results will aid researchers aiming to support friendship maintenance in children with ASD.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Friendships Conflict Friendship transgressions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Jessica Barnes and Maryam Moravvej Farshi for their assistance in conducting this research. We would also like to thank the teachers and parents who assisted in coordinating or providing data, and the many participants who agreed to complete the interview surveys.

Author Contributions

KBB participated in the study design, supervised data collection, conducted the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. CM coordinated recruitment and data collection, conducted participant interviews, and participated in editing the manuscript. JC participated in data collection, and in editing the manuscript. SYK assisted in data analysis and in editing the manuscript. JM participated in the study design and statistical analysis, and edited the manuscript.

Funding

This research was not supported by any specific funding source.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed parental consent and participant assent was obtained from all individuals prior to their participation in this study.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th edn.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asher, S. R., MacEvoy, J. P., & McDonald, K. L. (2008). Children’s peer relations, social competence, and school adjustment: A social tasks and social goals perspective. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 15, 357–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). An essay on autism and theory of mind. Mindblindness: MIT press.Google Scholar
  4. Bauminger, N., & Kasari, C. (2000). Loneliness and friendship in high-functioning children with autism. Child Development, 71(2), 447–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauminger, N., & Shulman, C. (2003). The development and maintenance of friendships in high-functioning children with autism: Maternal perceptions. Autism, 7, 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauminger, N., Shulman, C., & Agam, G. (2004). The link between perceptions of self and of social relationships in high-functioning children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 16, 193–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berndt, T. J. (2004). Children’s friendships: Shifts over a half-century in perspectives on their development and their effects. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 206–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bölte, S., Poustka, F., & Constantino, J. N. (2008). Assessing autistic traits: Cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS). Autism Research, 1(6), 354–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chamberlain, B., Kasari, C., & Rotheram-Fuller, E. (2007). Involvement or isolation? The social networks of children with autism in regular classrooms. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 230–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chevallier, C., Kohls, G., Troiani, V., Brodkin, E. S., & Schultz, R. T. (2012). The social motivation theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). The Social Responsiveness Scale Manual, Second Edition (SRS-2). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  12. Daniel, L. S., & Billingsley, B. S. (2010). What boys with an autism spectrum disorder say about establishing and maintaining friendships. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25, 220–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Finch, J. (1987). The vignette technique in survey research. Sociology, 21(1), 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. García-Pérez, R. M., Hobson, R. P., & Lee, A. (2008). Narrative role-taking in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(1), 156–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gomez, C. R., & Baird, S. (2005). Identifying early indicators for autism in self-regulation difficulties. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities., 20, 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Humphrey, N., & Symes, W. (2011). Peer interaction patterns among adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) in mainstream school settings. Autism, 15, 397–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jaswal, V. K., & Akhtar, N. (2018). Being vs. appearing socially uninterested: Challenging assumptions about social motivation in autism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 1–84.Google Scholar
  18. Kasari, C., Locke, J., Gulsrud, A., & Rotheram-Fuller, E. (2011). Social networks and friendships at school: Comparing children with and without ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 533–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Klin, A., Jones, W., Shultz, R., & Volkmar, F. (2003). The enactive mind, or from actions to cognition: Lessons from autism. Philosophical Transactions from the Royal Society of London B, 358, 345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kover, S. T., & Atwood, A. K. (2013). Establishing equivalence: Methodological progress in group-matching design and analysis. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 118(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Laursen, B., & Adams, R. (2018). Conflict between peers. In W. M. Bukowski, B. Laursen & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (2nd edition, p. 265). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. L. (2012). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, second edition (ADOS-2) manual (Part I): Modules 1–4. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  23. Losh, M., & Capps, L. (2006). Understanding of emotional experience in autism: Insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MacEvoy, J. P., & Asher, S. R. (2012). When friends disappoint: Boys’ and girls’ responses to transgressions of friendship expectations. Child Development, 83, 104–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mazefsy, C. A., Herrington, J., Siegel, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B. B., Scahill, L., & White, S. W. (2013). The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(7), 679–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ochs, E., Kremer-Sadlik, T., Sirota, K. G., & Solomon, O. (2004). Autism and the social world: An anthropological perspective. Discourse Studies, 6, 147–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental psychology, 29(4), 611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Petrina, N., Carter, M., & Stephenson, J. (2014). The nature of friendship in children with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(2), 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rieffe, C., Camodeca, M., Pouw, L. B. C., Lange, A. M. C., & Stockman, L. (2012). Don’t anger me! Bullying, victimization, and emotion dysregulation in young adolescents with ASD. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(3), 351–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rogé, B., & Mullet, E. (2011). Blame and forgiveness judgements among children, adolescents and adults with autism. Autism, 15(6), 702–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rose, A. J., & Asher, S. R. (1999). Children’s goals and strategies in response to conflicts within a friendship. Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rowley, E., Chandler, S., Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Loucas, T., & Charman, T. (2012). The experiences of friendship, victimization and bullying in children with an autism spectrum disorder: Associations with child characteristics and school placement. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 1126–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. G. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In W. Damon, R. M. Lerner & Ν Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3, Social, emotional, and personality development (6th edn., pp. 571–645). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Schopler, E., Van Bourgondien, M. E., Wellman, G. J., & Love, S. R. (2010). Childhood autism rating scale, (CARS-2). Torrance: Western Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  35. Solomon, M., Bauminger, N., & Rogers, S. J. (2011). Abstract reasoning and friendship i high functioning preadolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. StataCorp. (2017). Stata statistical software: Release 15. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC.Google Scholar
  37. van Roekel, E., Scholte, R. H. J., & Didden, R. (2010). Bullying among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence and perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Volker, M. A., Lopata, C., Smerbeck, A. M., Knoll, V. A., Thomeer, M. L., Toomey, J. A., & Rodgers, J. D. (2010). BASC-2 PRS profiles for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 188–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. von Salisch, M., & Vogelgesang, J. (2005). Anger regulation among friends: Assessment and development from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22(6), 837–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wechsler, D. (2011). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence (2nd edn.). San Antonio: Pearson.Google Scholar
  41. Whitehouse, A. J., Durkin, K., Jaquet, E., & Ziatas, K. (2009). Friendship, loneliness and depression in adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome. Journal of Adolescence, 32(2), 309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lynch School of EducationBoston CollegeChestnut HillUSA

Personalised recommendations