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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 1131–1141 | Cite as

Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety Disorders in Adolescent and Adult Males with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

  • Jordan Ezell
  • Abigail Hogan
  • Amanda Fairchild
  • Kimberly Hills
  • Jessica Klusek
  • Leonard Abbeduto
  • Jane RobertsEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Anxiety disorders affect ~ 15–20% of youths without neurodevelopmental disorders, with persons having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS) at elevated risk for anxiety disorders. Few studies have compared rates and predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents with FXS or ASD. This study directly compares rates, predictors, and medication of anxiety disorders between age-matched, male adolescents with FXS (n = 31) or ASD (n = 20). Results indicate that 51.6% of FXS and 50.0% of ASD adolescents met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Cognitive scores and ASD severity did not predict anxiety. Of those with anxiety, ~ 40% of the FXS and 20% of the ASD participants were prescribed medications for anxiety.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Fragile X syndrome Anxiety Intellectual disability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the families who participated in this research.

Author Contributions

Jordan Ezell wrote the initial draft of the manuscript, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and completed the statistical analysis. Dr. Hogan assisted with the initial writing of the manuscript, extensively revised the manuscript, and approved final manuscript as submitted. Dr. Fairchild provided expertise on the data analysis, assisted in writing the results, and approved final manuscript. Dr. Hills provided clinical expertise, conducted all clinical reliability, and approved final manuscript as submitted. Dr. Klusek assisted with the study conceptualization and approved final manuscript as submitted. Dr. Abbeduto provided expertise in the conceptualization of the manuscript, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved final submission. Dr. Roberts provided leadership on the design of the study, extensively revised the manuscript, and approved final manuscript as submitted.

Funding

This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, Grant/Award Numbers: 1R01MH107573; U54HD079125; R01MH090194; R01HD024356.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Jordan Ezell declares that she has no conflict of interest. Abigail Hogan declares that she has no conflict of interest. Amanda Fairchild declares that she has no conflict of interest. Kimberly Hills declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jessica Klusek declares that she has no conflict of interest. Leonard Abbeduto declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jane Roberts declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordan Ezell
    • 1
  • Abigail Hogan
    • 1
  • Amanda Fairchild
    • 1
  • Kimberly Hills
    • 1
  • Jessica Klusek
    • 2
  • Leonard Abbeduto
    • 3
  • Jane Roberts
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Communication Sciences and Disorders, Arnold School of Public HealthUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.MIND Institute and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of California DavisSacramentoUSA

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