Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 391–396 | Cite as

Brief Report: Using the Social Communication Questionnaire to Identify Young People Residing in Secure Children’s Homes with Symptom Complexes Compatible with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

  • P. J. Kennedy
  • Philip Sinfield
  • Lucy Tweedlie
  • Carol Nixon
  • Aisling Martin
  • Katie Edwards
Brief Report

Abstract

Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% of the general population. The prevalence of ASD, or symptom complexes compatible with ASD, amongst young people residing within Secure Children’s Homes (SCH’s) remains ill understood. There are critical implications for the resourcing and understanding of the management of young people with social/communication difficulties. This paper describes a preliminary investigation of the prevalence of ASD within SCH’s in the UK. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was completed with support workers for 113 adolescents admitted to two SCH’s in England as a screen for ASD. The SCQ identified 15 (13.3%) young people with symptoms compatible with an ASD presentation; differences in gender, legal status and a history of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) are discussed.

Keywords

Adolescent Autistic spectrum disorders Prevalence Social communication Secure units Vulnerability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the young people and staff of the SCH’s for their support and participation in this project.

Author Contributions

PJK conceived of the study, participated in its design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript and critical revisions leading to publication. PS participated in co-ordinating the acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data and drafting of manuscript. LT participated in co-ordinating the acquisition of data and drafting of manuscript. CN participated in the design, drafting and revising of manuscript. AM participated in drafting and revising of manuscript. KE participated in the drafting and revising of manuscript and revisions leading to publication.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Standard

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Virginia: American Psychiatric AssociationCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anckarsäter, H., Nilsson, T., Saury, J. M., Råstam, M., & Gillberg, C. (2008). Autism spectrum disorders in institutionalized subjects. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 62(2), 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anckarsäter, H., Nilsson, T., Ståhlberg, O., Gustafson, M., Saury, J.-M., Råstam, M., et al. (2007). Prevalences and configurations of mental disorders among institutionalized adolescents. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 10(1), 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autistic spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The special needs and autism project (SNAP). Lancet, 368, 210–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron-Cohen, S., Scott, F. J., Allison, C., Williams, J., Bolton, P., Matthews, F. S., et al. (2009). Prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions: UK school-based population study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194, 500–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourke, J., de Klerk, N., Smith, T., & Leonard, H. (2016). Population-based prevalence of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders in Western Australia: A comparison with previous estimates. Medicine, 95(21), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. British Psychological Society (2015). Children and young people with neuro-disabilities in the criminal justice system. Retrieved from July 6, 2016, from http://www.bps.org.uk/system/files/Public%20files/cyp_with_neurodisabilities_in_the_cjs.pdf.
  8. Brooks, W., T., & Benson, B., A (2013). The validity of the social communication questionnaire in adults with intellectual disability. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(2), 247–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brugha, T., Cooper, S. A., McManus, S., Purdon, S., Smith, J., Scott, F. J., et al. (2012). Estimating the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in adults: Extending the 2007 adult psychiatric morbidity survey. London: The Health and Social Care Information Centre.Google Scholar
  10. Brugha, T., McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Smith, J., Scott, F. J., Purdon, S., et al. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders in adults living in households throughout England: Report from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2016 from http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB01131/aut-sp-dis-adu-liv-ho-a-p-m-sur-eng-2007-rep.pdf.
  11. Cashin, A., & Newman, C. (2009). Autism in the criminal justice detention system: A review of the literature. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 5, 70–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, united stated, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63, 1–21.Google Scholar
  13. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, united states, 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(3), 1–23.Google Scholar
  14. Charman, T., Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Loucas, T., Chandler, S., Meldrum, D., et al. (2007). Efficacy of three screening instruments in the identification of autistic-spectrum disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 554–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheely, C. A., Carpenter, L. A., Letourneau, E. J., Nicholas, J. S., Charles, J., & King, L. B. (2012). The prevalence of youth with autism spectrum disorders in the criminal justice system. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(9), 1856–1862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eaves, L. C., Wingert, H., & Ho, H. H. (2006). Screening for autism: Agreement with diagnosis. Autism, 10(3), 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y. J., Kim, Y. S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C., … Yasamy, M. T. (2012). Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Research, 5(3), 160–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fernandopulle, N. (2011). Measurement of autism: A review of four screening measures. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 33(1), 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fombonne, E. (2003). Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: An update. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 365–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fombonne, E., Quirke, S., & Hagen, A. (2009). Prevalence and interpretation of recent trends in rates of pervasive developmental disorders. McGill Journal of Medicine, 16(12), 73.Google Scholar
  21. Hare, D. J., Gould, J., Mills, R., & Wing, L. (1999). A preliminary study of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders in three special hospitals in England. The National Autistic Society. Retrieved May 19, 2016, from http://www.autism.org.uk.
  22. Howlin, P. (2004). Autism and asperger syndrome: Preparing for adulthood. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hughes, N., Williams, H., Chitsabesan, P., Davies, R., & Mounce, L. (2012). Nobody made the connection: The prevalence of neurodisability in young people who offend. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from https://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/Nobody%20made%20the%20connection.pdf.
  24. King, C., & Murphy, G. H. (2014). A systematic review of people with autism spectrum disorder and the criminal justice system. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 2217–2733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumagami, T., & Matsurra, N. (2009). Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder in juvenile court cases in Japan. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 20(6), 978–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lerner, M. D., Haque, O. S., Northrup, E. C., Lawer, L., & Bursztajn, H. J. (2012). Emerging perspectives on adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, violence, and criminal law. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 40(2), 177–190.Google Scholar
  27. Maskey, M., Lowry, J., Rodgers, J., McConachie, H., & Parr, J. R. (2014). Reducing specific phobia/fear in young people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) through a virtual reality environment intervention. PLoS ONE. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0100374.
  28. Mayes, T. A. (2003). Persons with autism and criminal justice core concepts and leading cases. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 92–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mouridsen, S. E. (2012). Current status of research on autism spectrum disorders and offending. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. NICE. (2014). Autism in under 19s: recognition, referral and diagnosis. Retrieved June 16, 2016, from https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg128.
  31. Offender Health Research Network. (2013). Manual for the Comprehensive Health Assessment Tool (CHAT): Young people in the secure estate. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from http://www.ohrn.nhs.uk.
  32. Russell, G., Steer, C., & Golding, J. (2011). Social and demographic factors that influence the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(12), 1283–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social communication questionnaire. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  34. Scragg, P., & Shah, A. (1994). Prevalence of asperger’s syndrome in a secure hospital. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 679–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Siponmaa, L., Kristiansson, M., Jonson, C., Nydén, A., & Gillberg, C. (2001). Juvenile and young adult mentally disordered offenders: The role of child neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 29(4), 420–426.Google Scholar
  36. Ståhlberg, O., Anckarsäter, H., & Nilsson, T. (2010). Mental health problems in youths committed to juvenile institutions: Prevalences and treatment needs. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 893–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Wijngaarden-Cremers, P. J., Van Eeten, E., Groen, W. B., Van Deurzen, P. A., Oosterling, I. J., & Van der Gaag, R. J. (2014). Gender and age differences in the core triad of impairments in autism spectrum disorders: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(3), 627–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vermeiren, R., Jespers, I., & Moffit, T. (2006). Mental health problems in juvenile justice populations. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15(2), 333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wei, T., Chesnut, S., Barnard-Brak, L., & Richman, D. (2014). Psychometric analysis of the social communication questionnaire using an item-response theory framework: Implications for the use of the lifetime and current forms. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 37(3), 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Witwer, A. N., & Lecavalier, L. (2007). Autism screening tools: An evaluation of the social communication questionnaire and the developmental behaviour checklist—autism screening algorithm. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 32(3), 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Kennedy
    • 1
  • Philip Sinfield
    • 1
  • Lucy Tweedlie
    • 1
  • Carol Nixon
    • 1
  • Aisling Martin
    • 1
  • Katie Edwards
    • 1
  1. 1.The Kolvin Service, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation TrustNewcastle Upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations