Modification of the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
- 767 Downloads
Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and adversely impact daytime functioning. Although no questionnaires have been developed to assess sleep in children with ASD, the 33-item Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is widely used in this population. We examined the factor structure of the CSHQ in 2872 children (age 4–10 years) enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. A four-factor solution (Sleep Initiation and Duration, Sleep Anxiety/Co-Sleeping, Night Waking/Parasomnias, and Daytime Alertness) with 5–6 items per factor explained 75% of the total variation. Ten items failed to load on any factor. This abbreviated 23-item four-factor version of this measure may be useful when assessing sleep in children with ASD.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire Sleep measures Insomnia Parental report
This research was conducted as part of the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network and the Autism Intervention Research Network on Physical Health. Main support came from a cooperative agreement (UA3 MC 11054) from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Research Program, to the Massachusetts General Hospital. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of Autism Speaks, Inc. or The Maternal and Child Health Bureau.
TK, AMS, CRJ, ALR, AMR, LS, and BAM worked on the conceptualization and design of the study, plan of analysis, interpretation of results, initial draft and revisions of the manuscript, and approval of the final manuscript as submitted. AMS completed all statistical analyses.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Dr. Katz declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ms. Shui declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Johnson declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Richdale declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Reynolds declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Scahill has served as a consultant to Neuren, Supernus, Shire, Bracket and CB Partners. He receives book royalties from Oxford and Guilford. Dr. Malow declares that she has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edn., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- Baglin, J. (2014). Improving your exploratory factor analysis for ordinal data: A demonstration using FACTOR. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation (a peer-reviewed electronic journal), Vol. 19, no. 5, http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=19&n=5. Accessed January, 12, 2017.
- Bollen, K. A., & Long, J. S. (1993). Introduction. In K. Bollen & J. Long (Eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models (pp. 1–9). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. Bollen & J. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Couturier, J. L., Speechley, K. N., Steele, M., Norman, R., Stringer, B., & Nicolson, R. (2005). Parental perception of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders: Prevalence, severity, and pattern. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(8), 815–822.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism diagnostic observation schedule, second edition (ADOS-2) manual (Part I): Modules 1–4. Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Mazurek, M. O., Lu, F., Symecko, H., Butter, E., Bing, N. M., Hundley, R. J., … Handen, B. L. (2017). A prospective study of the concordance of DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(9), 2783–2794.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd edn.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Scahill, L., Bearss, K., Lecavalier, L., Smith, T., Swiezy, N., Aman, M. G., … Johnson, C. (2016). Effect of parent training on adaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior: Results of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(7), 602–609.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Steiger, J. H., & Lind, J. C. (1980). Statistically based tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa, City, IA.Google Scholar
- Tanaka, J. S. (1993). Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models. In K. Bollen & J. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 10–40). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Thorpy, M. J. (1990). International classification of sleep disorders. Diagnostic and coding manual. Diagnostic classification steering committee. Rochester, MN: American Sleep Disorder Association.Google Scholar
- Veatch, O. J., Pendergast, J. S., Allen, M. J., Leu, R. M., Johnson, C. H., Elsea, S. H., & Malow, B. A. (2015). Genetic variation in melatonin pathway enzymes in children with autism spectrum disorder and comorbid sleep onset delay. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(1), 100–110.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar