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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 48, Issue 8, pp 2629–2641 | Cite as

Modification of the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Terry KatzEmail author
  • Amy M. Shui
  • Cynthia R. Johnson
  • Amanda L. Richdale
  • Ann M. Reynolds
  • Lawrence Scahill
  • Beth A. Malow
Original Paper

Abstract

Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and adversely impact daytime functioning. Although no questionnaires have been developed to assess sleep in children with ASD, the 33-item Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is widely used in this population. We examined the factor structure of the CSHQ in 2872 children (age 4–10 years) enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. A four-factor solution (Sleep Initiation and Duration, Sleep Anxiety/Co-Sleeping, Night Waking/Parasomnias, and Daytime Alertness) with 5–6 items per factor explained 75% of the total variation. Ten items failed to load on any factor. This abbreviated 23-item four-factor version of this measure may be useful when assessing sleep in children with ASD.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire Sleep measures Insomnia Parental report 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was conducted as part of the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network and the Autism Intervention Research Network on Physical Health. Main support came from a cooperative agreement (UA3 MC 11054) from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Research Program, to the Massachusetts General Hospital. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of Autism Speaks, Inc. or The Maternal and Child Health Bureau.

Author Contributions

TK, AMS, CRJ, ALR, AMR, LS, and BAM worked on the conceptualization and design of the study, plan of analysis, interpretation of results, initial draft and revisions of the manuscript, and approval of the final manuscript as submitted. AMS completed all statistical analyses.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Dr. Katz declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ms. Shui declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Johnson declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Richdale declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Reynolds declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Scahill has served as a consultant to Neuren, Supernus, Shire, Bracket and CB Partners. He receives book royalties from Oxford and Guilford. Dr. Malow declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Colorado Denver School of MedicineAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Biostatistics CenterMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.STAR Center for ASD & NDDs, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Clinical and Health PsychologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  5. 5.Olga Tennison Autism Research Centre, School of Psychology and Public HealthLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  6. 6.Marcus Autism CenterEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  7. 7.Sleep Disorders Division, Department of NeurologyVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleUSA

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