Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 1325–1337 | Cite as

Child, Maternal and Demographic Factors Influencing Caregiver-Reported Autistic Trait Symptomatology in Toddlers

  • D. A. Goh
  • D. Gan
  • J. Kung
  • S. Baron-Cohen
  • C. Allison
  • H. Chen
  • S. M. Saw
  • Y. S. Chong
  • V. S. Rajadurai
  • K. H. Tan
  • P. C. L. Shek
  • F. Yap
  • B. F. P. Broekman
  • I. MagiatiEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Current research on children’s autistic traits in the general population relies predominantly on caregiver-report, yet the extent to which individual, caregiver or demographic characteristics are associated with informants’ ratings has not been sufficiently explored. In this study, caregivers of 396 Singaporean two-year-olds from a birth cohort study completed the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. Children’s gender, cognitive functioning and birth order, maternal age, and ethnic group membership were not significant predictors of caregiver-reported autistic traits. Poorer child language development and higher maternal depressive symptoms significantly predicted more social-communicative autistic traits, while lower maternal education predicted more behavioural autistic traits. Children’s language and informants’ educational level and depressive symptomatology may need to be considered in caregiver-reports of autistic traits.

Keywords

Autistic traits Measurement Informant Child Demographic Predictors. 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would also like to acknowledge all members of the GUSTO study group for their contributions. The GUSTO study group includes Pratibha Agarwal, Arijit Biswas, Choon Looi Bong, Birit FP Broekman, Shirong Cai, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, Yiong Huak Chan, Cornelia Yin Ing Chee, Helen Y. H Chen, Yin Bun Cheung, Audrey Chia, Amutha Chinnadurai, Chai Kiat Chng, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Yap-Seng Chong, Shang Chee Chong, Mei Chien Chua, Chun Ming Ding, Eric Andrew Finkelstein, Doris Fok, Marielle Fortier, Peter D. Gluckman, Keith M. Godfrey, Anne Eng Neo Goh, Yam Thiam Daniel Goh, Joshua J. Gooley, Wee Meng Han, Mark Hanson, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Joanna D. Holbrook, Chin-Ying Hsu, Hazel Inskip, Jeevesh Kapur, Kenneth Kwek, Ivy Yee-Man Lau, Bee Wah Lee, Yung Seng Lee, Ngee Lek, Sok Bee Lim, Yen-Ling Low, Iliana Magiati, Lourdes Mary Daniel, Michael Meaney, Cheryl Ngo, Krishnamoorthy Naiduvaje, Wei Wei Pang, Anqi Qiu, Boon Long Quah, Victor Samuel Rajadurai, Mary Rauff, Salome A. Rebello, Jenny L. Richmond, Anne Rifkin-Graboi, Seang-Mei Saw, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Allan Sheppard, Borys Shuter, Leher Singh, Shu-E Soh, Walter Stunkel, Lin Lin Su, Kok Hian Tan, Oon Hoe Teoh, Mya Thway Tint, Hugo P S van Bever, Rob M. van Dam, Inez Bik Yun Wong, P. C. Wong, Fabian Yap, George Seow Heong Yeo.

Author Contributions

DAG led the analyses and writing up of this manuscript, with contributions from DG and JK; IM conceptualized the study and oversaw all aspects of the research process from data collection and cleaning to analysis and writing up; SB and CA provided expert consultation on aspects relating to the use of the measure examined in the present study which they developed and provided specialist input in the analyses and writing up of the project. All other co-authors contributed to overseeing various aspects of the data collection of the different measures employed in this study as part of their involvement in the larger GUSTO study, and in providing input and feedback in the analyses and writing up of the present study. All authors contributed to the writing up and editing of the manuscript and all approved its final version for submission to the journal for publication.

Funding

This research is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Translational and Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Programme and administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health’s National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore—NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008 and NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014. Additional funding was provided by the Ministry of Education AcRF Tier 1 funding grant R581000130112 awarded to the corresponding/senior author and Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences—A*STAR. We are grateful to all research and admin staff of the GUSTO study for their work, support and contribution towards data collection and to all caregivers and children involved in this longitudinal study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The fourth and fifth authors are the developers of the measure investigated in the present study (the Q-CHAT), however the measure is freely available and non-copyrighted and therefore the authors have no financial interests stemming from this research study. The other authors report no conflicts of interest.

Ethical standards

All procedures performed in this study which involved human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research board. Ethical approval for the larger study, within which this study was embedded, was provided by the Singhealth Centralized Institutional Review Board (CIRB) and the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB), and was approved by the National University of Singapore. Informed consent were obtained from all participants at recruitment. There was no obligation to take part in the study and participants could withdraw at any point without their standard medical care being affected in any way.

References

  1. Allison, C., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Charman, T., Richler, J., PASDo, G., & Brayne, C. (2008). The Q-CHAT (Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers): A normally distributed quantitative measure of autistic traits at 18–24 months of age: Preliminary report. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(8), 1414–1425.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0509-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). 5th edn. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Knickmeyer, R., Taylor, K., & Hackett, G. (2009). Fetal testosterone and autistic traits. British Journal of Psychology, 100(Pt 1), 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1348/000712608x311731.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Allison, C. (2008). The autism spectrum quotient: Children’s version (AQ-Child). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1230–1240.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0504-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Auyeung, B., Taylor, K., Hackett, G., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2010). Foetal testosterone and autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Molecular Autism, 1(1), 11.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-1-11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A., Knickmeyer, R., & Wheelwright, S. (2006). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ)—adolescent version. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(3), 343–350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bayley, N. (2006). Bayley scales of infant and toddler development (3rd edn). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282906297199 Google Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the beck depression inventoryII. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  10. Bennett, T., Boyle, M., Georgiades, K., Georgiades, S., Thompson, A., Duku, E., et al. (2012). Influence of reporting effects on the association between maternal depression and child autism spectrum disorder behaviors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 53(1), 89–96.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02451.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berument, S. K., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Pickles, A., & Bailey, A. (1999). Autism screening questionnaire: Diagnostic validity. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 175(5), 444–451. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/175/5/444.abstract.
  12. Bilder, D., Pinborough-Zimmerman, J., Miller, J., & McMahon, W. (2009). Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 123(5), 1293–1300.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-0927.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bishop, D. V. M., Maybery, M., Wong, D., Maley, A., & Hallmayer, J. (2006). Characteristics of the broader phenotype in autism: A study of siblings using the children’s communication checklist-2. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics, 141B(2), 117–122.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bölte, S., Westerwald, E., Holtmann, M., Freitag, C., & Poustka, F. (2011). Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders: The clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(1), 66–72.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1024-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Charman, T., Howlin, P., Berry, B., & Prince, E. (2004). Measuring developmental progress of children with autism spectrum disorder on school entry using parent report. Autism, 8(1), 89–100.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361304040641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Constantino, J. N. (2012). Social responsiveness scale—second edition (SRS-2). Torrance, CA: WPS.Google Scholar
  17. Constantino, J. N., & Todd, R. D. (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: A twin study. Archives in General Psychiatry, 60(5), 524–530.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.5.524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Constantino, J. N., & Todd, R. D. (2005). Intergenerational transmission of subthreshold autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry, 57(6), 655–660.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.12.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Daniels, J. L., Forssen, U., Hultman, C. M., Cnattingius, S., Savitz, D. A., Feychting, M., & Sparen, P. (2008). Parental psychiatric disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. Pediatrics, 121(5), e1357–e1362.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Department of Statistics Singapore. (2016). Population trends. Retrieved on January 29, 2018, from http://www.singstat.gov.sg.
  21. Durkin, M. S., Maenner, M. J., Newschaffer, C. J., Lee, L.-C., Cunniff, C. M., Daniels, J. L., et al. (2008). Advanced parental age and the risk of autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168(11), 1268–1276.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwn250.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Dworzynski, K., Ronald, A., Hayiou-Thomas, M., Rijsdijk, F., Happé, F., Bolton, P. F., et al. (2007). Aetiological relationship between language performance and autistic-like traits in childhood: A twin study. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, Royal College of Speech& Language Therapists, 42(3), 273–292.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820600939002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Estes, A., Munson, J., Dawson, G., Koehler, E., Zhou, X.-H., et al. (2009). Parenting distress and psychological functioning among mothers of preschool children with autism and developmental delay. Autism, 13(4), 375–387.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361309105658.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Freeth, M., Sheppard, E., Ramachandran, R., & Milne, E. (2013). A cross-cultural comparison of autistic traits in the UK, India and Malaysia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(11), 2569–2583.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1808-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gardener, H., Spiegelman, D., & Buka, S. L. (2009). Prenatal risk factors for autism: Comprehensive meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(1), 7–14.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.108.051672.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Gartstein, M. A., & Fagot, B. I. (2003). Parental depression, parenting and family adjustment, and child effortful control:Explaining externalizing behaviors for preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(2), 143–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(03)00043-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grantham-McGregor, S., Cheung, Y. B., Cueto, S., Glenwwe, P., Ritcher, L., et al. (2007). Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. The Lancet, 369(9555), 60–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60032-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grether, J. K., Anderson, M. C., Croen, L. A., Smith, D., & Windham, G. C. (2009). Risk of autism and increasing maternal and paternal age in a large north American population. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(9), 1118–1126.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hastings, R. P., Kovshoff, H., Ward, N. J., Degli Espinosa, F., Brown, T., & Remington, B. (2005). Systems analysis of stress and positive perceptions in mothers and fathers of pre-school children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(5), 635–644.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-005-0007-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoekstra, R. A., Bartels, M., Verweij, C. J. H., & Boomsma, D. I. (2007). Heritability of autistic traits in the general population. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161(4), 372–377.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.4.372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoekstra, R. A., Happé, F., Baron-Cohen, S., & Ronald, A. (2009). Association between extreme autistic traits and intellectual disability: Insights from a general population twin study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(6), 531–536.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.108.060889.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoekstra, R. A., Happé, F., Baron-Cohen, S., & Ronald, A. (2010). Limited genetic covariance between autistic traits and intelligence: Findings from a longitudinal twin study. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 153(5), 994–1007.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31066.Google Scholar
  33. Hoff, E. (2003). The specificity of environmental influence: Socioeconomic status affects early vocabulary development via maternal speech. Child Development, 74, 1368–1378.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hurst, R. M., Mitchell, J. T., Kimbrel, N. A., Kwapil, T. K., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (2007). Examination of the reliability and factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient(AQ) in a non-clinical sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(7), 1938–1949.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.06.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hus, V., Bishop, S., Gotham, K., Huerta, M., & Lord, C. (2013). Factors influencing scores on the social responsiveness scale. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 54(2), 216–224.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02589.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. King, M. D., Fountain, C., Dakhlallah, D., & Bearman, P. S. (2009). Estimated autism risk and older reproductive age. American Journal of Public Health, 99(9), 1673–1679.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.149021.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee, H., Marvin, A. R., Watsson, T., Piggot, J., Law, J. K., Constantino, J. N., et al. (2010). Accuracy of phenotyping of autistic children based on Internet implemented parent report. American Journal of Medical Genetics B. Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 153B(6), 1119–1126.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Leonard, H., Glasson, E., Nassar, N., Whitehouse, A., Bebbington, A., Bourke, J., et al. (2011). Autism and intellectual disability are differentially related to sociodemographic background at birth. PLoS ONE, 6(3), e17875.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017875.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Magiati, I., Goh, D. A., Lim, S. J., Gan, D. Z. Q., Leong, J. C., Allison, C., et al. (2015). The psychometric properties of the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT) as a measure of autistic traits in a community sample of Singaporean infants and toddlers. Molecular Autism, 6(40), 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-015-0032-1.
  40. Mandy, W. P. L., & Skuse, D. H. (2008). Research review: What is the association between the social-communication element of autism and repetitive interests, behaviours and activities? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(8), 795–808.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01911.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Matson, J. L., Worley, J. A., Fodstad, J. C., Chung, K.-M., Suh, D., Jhin, H. K., et al. (2011). A multinational study examining the cross cultural differences in reported symptoms of autism spectrum disorders: Israel, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(4), 1598–1604.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maxwell, C. R., Parish-Morris, J., Hsin, O., Bush, J. C., & Schultz, R. T. (2013). The broad autism phenotype predicts child functioning in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 5(1), 25.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1866-1955-5-25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Norbury, C. F., & Sparks, A. (2013). Difference or disorder? Cultural issues in understanding neurodevelopmental disorders. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 45–58.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Norris, M., & Lecavalier, L. (2010). Screening Accuracy of level 2 autism spectrum disorder rating scales: A review of selected instruments. Autism, 14(4), 263–284.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361309348071.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ordway, M. R. (2011). Depressed mothers as informants on child behavior: Methodological issues. Research in Nursing & Health, 34(6), 520–532.  https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.20463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Posserud, M. B., Lundervold, A. J., & Gillberg, C. (2006). Autistic features in a total population of 7–9-year-old children assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 167–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Robinson, E. B., Koenen, K. C., McCormick, M. C., Munir, K., Hallett, V., Happe, F., et al. (2011a). Evidence that autistic traits show the same etiology in the general population and at the quantitative extremes (5%, 2.5%, and 1%). Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(11), 1113–1121.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Robinson, E. B., Munir, K., McCormick, M. C., Koenen, K. C., & Santangelo, S. L. (2011b). Brief report: No association between parental age and extreme social-communicative autistic traits in the general population. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(12), 1733–1737.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1202-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Ronald, A., & Hoekstra, R. (2014). Progress in understanding the causes of autism spectrum disorders and autistic traits: Twin studies from 1977 to the present day. In E. H. Rhee & A. Ronald (Eds.), Behaviour genetics of psychopathology (pp. 33–65). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ronald, A., Pennell, C. E., & Whitehouse, A. J. O. (2011). Prenatal maternal stress associated with ADHD and autistic traits in early childhood. Frontiers in Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00223.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Russell, G., Steer, C., & Golding, J. (2010). Social and demographic factors that influence the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(12), 1283–1293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-010-0294-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. M. (2003). Social communication questionnaire. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  53. Ruzich, E., Allison, C., Smith, P., Watson, P., Auyeung, B., Ring, H., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2015). Measuring autistic traits in the general population: A systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females. Molecular Autism, 6(1), 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-6-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ryland, H. K., Hysing, M., Posserud, M. B., Gillberg, C., & Lundervold, A. J. (2014). Autistic features in school age children: IQ and gender effects in a population-based cohort. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8, 266–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sasanfar, R., Haddad, S., Tolouei, A., Ghadami, M., Yu, D., & Santangelo, S. L. (2010). Paternal age increases the risk for autism in an Iranian population sample. Molecular Autism, 1(1), 2.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-1-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Scott, F. J., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children. Autism, 6(1), 9–31.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361302006001003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Shuster, J., Perry, A., Bebko, J., & Toplak, M. (2014). Review of factor analytic studies examining symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(1), 90–110.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1854-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Sikora, D. M., Hall, T. A., Hartley, S. L., Gerrard-Morris, A. E., & Cagle, S. (2008). Does parent report of behavior differ across ADOS-G classifications: Analysis of scores from the CBCL and GARS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(3), 440–448.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0407-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Skuse, D. H., Mandy, W. P. L., & Scourfield, J. (2005). Measuring autistic traits: Heritability, reliability and validity of the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 187, 568–572.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.187.6.568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Soh, S.-E., Tint, M. T., Gluckman, P. D., Godfrey, K. M., Rifkin-Graboi, A., Chan, Y. H., et al. (2013). Cohort profile: Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyt125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Sucksmith, E., Roth, I., & Hoekstra, R. A. (2011). Autistic traits below the clinical threshold: Re-examining the broader autism phenotype in the 21st century. Neuropsychology Review, 21(4), 360–389.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-011-9183-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Taylor, L. J., Maybery, M. T., Wray, J., Ravine, D., Hunt, A., & Whitehouse, A. J. O. (2013). Brief report: Do the nature of communication impairments in autism spectrum disorders relate to the broader autism phenotype in parents? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2984–2989.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1838-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Virkud, Y. V., Todd, R. D., Abbacchi, A. M., Zhang, Y., & Constantino, J. N. (2009). Familial aggregation of quantitative autistic traits in multiplex versus simplex autism. American Journal Of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30810.Familial.Google Scholar
  64. Wakabayashi, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Tojo, Y. (2006). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) in Japan: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(2), 263–270.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-005-0061-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Wallentin, M. (2009). Putative sex differences in verbal abilities and language cortex: A critical review. Brain and Language, 108(3), 175–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2008.07.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Warren, Z., Vehorn, A., Dohrmann, E., Nicholson, A., Sutcliffe, J. S., & Veenstra-Vanderweele, J. (2012). Accuracy of phenotyping children with autism based on parent report: What specifically do we gain phenotyping “rapidly”? Autism Research, 5(1), 31–38.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Wheelwright, S., Auyeung, B., Allison, C., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2010). Defining the broader, medium, narrow autism phenotype among parents using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Molecular Autism, 1(1), 10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-1-10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Wheelwright, S., Baron-Cohen, S., Goldenfeld, N., Delaney, J., Fine, D., Smith, R., et al. (2006). Predicting autism spectrum quotient (AQ) from the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R)and empathy quotient (EQ). Brain Research, 1079(1), 47–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.01.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Williams, J., & Holmes, C. A. (2004). Improving the early detection of children with subtle developmental problems. Journal of Child Health Care, 8(1), 34–46.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493504041852.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Wong, H. S., Huertas-Ceballos, A., Cowan, F. M., & Modi, N. (2014). Evaluation of early childhood social-communication difficulties in children born preterm using the quantitative checklist for autism in toddlers. The Journal of Pediatrics, 164(1), 26–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.07.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Goh
    • 1
  • D. Gan
    • 1
  • J. Kung
    • 1
  • S. Baron-Cohen
    • 8
  • C. Allison
    • 8
  • H. Chen
    • 3
    • 9
  • S. M. Saw
    • 6
    • 9
    • 10
  • Y. S. Chong
    • 2
    • 7
  • V. S. Rajadurai
    • 3
    • 9
  • K. H. Tan
    • 3
    • 9
  • P. C. L. Shek
    • 2
    • 11
  • F. Yap
    • 3
    • 9
    • 12
  • B. F. P. Broekman
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • I. Magiati
    • 1
    Email author return OK on get
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNational University of Singapore (NUS)SingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Singapore Institute of Clinical Sciences (SICS)A*STARSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.KK Women’s and Children’s HospitalSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Department of Psychological MedicineNational University of Singapore (NUS)SingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of Singapore, National University Health SystemSingaporeSingapore
  6. 6.Saw Swee Hock School of Public HealthNational University of Singapore (NUS)SingaporeSingapore
  7. 7.Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of Singapore, National University Hospital SystemSingaporeSingapore
  8. 8.Autism Research CentreUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  9. 9.Duke-NUS Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  10. 10.Singapore Eye Research InstituteSingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medical CentreSingaporeSingapore
  11. 11.Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and RheumatologyNational University of Singapore, National University Hospital SystemSingaporeSingapore
  12. 12.Lee Kong Chian School of MedicineNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations