Maternal and Paternal Infertility Disorders and Treatments and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development

  • Laura A. Schieve
  • Carolyn Drews-Botsch
  • Shericka Harris
  • Craig Newschaffer
  • Julie Daniels
  • Carolyn DiGuiseppi
  • Lisa A. Croen
  • Gayle C. Windham
Original Paper

Abstract

Previous studies of associations between ASD and conception using assisted reproductive technology (ART) are inconsistent and few studies have examined associations with other infertility treatments or infertility disorders. We examined associations between ASD and maternal/paternal infertility disorders and numerous maternal treatments among 1538 mother–child pairs in the Study to Explore Early Development, a population-based case-control study. ASD was associated with any female infertility diagnosis and several specific diagnoses: blocked tubes, endometriosis, uterine-factor infertility, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Stratified analyses suggested associations were limited to/much stronger among second or later births. The findings were not explained by sociodemographic factors such as maternal age or education or multiple or preterm birth. ASD was not associated with ART or non-ART infertility treatments.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Neurodevelopmental disorders Infertility Reproductive techniques, assisted Ovulation induction Epidemiology 

Supplementary material

10803_2017_3283_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 29 KB)

References

  1. Ananth, C. V., Wilcox, A. J., Savitz, D. A., Bowes, W. A. Jr., & Luther, E. R. (1996). Effect of maternal age and parity on the risk of uteroplacental bleeding disorders in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 88(4 Pt 1), 511–516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arndt, T. L., Stodgell, C. J., & Rodier, P. M. (2005). The teratology of autism. International Journal Developmental Neuroscience, 23, 189–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barradas, D. T., Barfield, W. D., Wright, V., D’Angelo, D., Manning, S. E., & Schieve, L. A. (2012). Assessment of assisted reproductive technology use questions: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Survey 2004. Public Health Reports, 127(5), 516–523.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauman, M. L., & Kemper, T. L. (2005). Neuroanatomic observations of the brain in autism: A review and future directions. International Journal Developmental Neuroscience, 23, 183–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berlac, J. F., Hartwell, D., Skovlund, C. W., Langhoff-Roos, J., & Lidegaard, Ø. (2017) Endometriosis increases the risk of obstetrical and neonatal complications. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. doi:10.1111/aogs.13111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blumberg, S. J., Bramlett, M. D., Kogan, M. D., Schieve, L. A., Jones, J. R., & Lu, M. C. (2013). Changes in prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder in school-aged U.S. children: 2007 to 2011–2012. National Health Statistics Report, 65, 1–11.Google Scholar
  7. Bolton, P. F., Golding, J., Emond, A., & Steer, C. D. (2012). Autism spectrum disorder and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: Precursors and early signs. Journal American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bungum, H. F., Vestergaard, C., & Knudsen, U. B. (2014). Endometriosis and type 1 allergies/immediate type hypersensitivity: A systematic review. European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 179, 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christensen, D. L., Baio, J., Van Naarden Braun, K., et al. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(3), 1–23.Google Scholar
  10. Conde-Agudelo, A., Rosas-Bermudez, A., & Norton, M. H. (2016) Birth spacing and risk of autism and other neurodevelopmental disabilities: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 137(5), e20153482. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-3482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Confino, E., & Radwanska, E. (1992). Tubal factors in infertility. Current Opinions in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4, 197–202.Google Scholar
  12. Coughlin, S. S. (1990). Recall bias in epidemiologic studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 43(1), 87–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. de Boer, E. J., den Tonkelaar, I., Burger, C. W., & van Leeuwen, F. E., OMEGA Project Group. (2005) Validity of self-reported causes of subfertility. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161(10), 978–986.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fountain, C., Zhang, Y., Kissin, D. M., Schieve, L. A., Jamieson, D. J., Rice, C., & Bearman, P. (2015). Association between assisted reproductive technology conception and autism in California, 1997–2007. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 963–971.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Grether, J. K., Qian, Y., Croughan, M. S., Wu, Y. W., Schembri, M., Camarano, L., & Croen, L. A. (2013). Is infertility associated with childhood autism? Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 43, 663–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grimes, D. A., & Schulz, K. F. (2002). Bias and causal associations in observational research. Lancet, 359(9302), 248–252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Horne, A. W., & Critchley, H. O. (2007). The effect of uterine fibroids on embryo implantation. Seminars on Reproductive Medicine, 25, 483–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hvidtjorn, D., Grove, J., Schendel, D., Schieve, L. A., Svaerke, C., Ernst, E., & Thorsen, P. (2011). Risk of autism spectrum disorders in children born after assisted conception: A population-based follow-up study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65, 497–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kachuei, M., Jafari, F., Kachuei, A., & Keshteli, A. H. (2012). Prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 285, 853–856.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Keskin Kurt, R., Okyay, A. G., Hakverdi, A. U., Gungoren, A., Dolapcioglu, K. S., Karateke, A., & Dogan, M. O. (2014). The effect of obesity on inflammatory markers in patients with PCOS: A BMI-matched case-control study. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 290, 315–319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kissin, D. M., Zhang, Y., Boulet, S. L., Fountain, C., Bearman, P., Schieve, L., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., & Jamieson, D. J. (2015). Association of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and parental infertility diagnosis with autism in ART-conceived children. Human Reproduction, 30, 454–465.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Klemetti, R., Sevón, T., Gissler, M., & Hemminki, E. (2006). Health of children born as a result of in vitro fertilization. Pediatrics, 118, 1819–1827.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Knoester, M., Helmerhorst, F. M., van der Westerlaken, L. A., Walther, F. J., & Veen, S. (2007). Leiden Artificial Reproductive Techniques Follow-up Project (L-art-FUP). Matched follow-up study of 5 8-year-old ICSI singletons: Child behaviour, parenting stress and child (health-related) quality of life. Human Reproduction, 22, 3098–3107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kobayashi, H., Higashiura, Y., Shigetomi, H., & Kajihara, H. (2014). Pathogenesis of endometriosis: The role of initial infection and subsequent sterile inflammation (Review). Molecular Medicine Reports, 9, 9–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kosidou, K., Dalman, C., Widman, L., Arver, S., Lee, B. K., Magnusson, C., & Gardner, R. M. (2016). Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring: A population-based nationwide study in Sweden. Molecular Psychiatry, 21, 1441–1448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lyall, K., Baker, A., Hertz-Picciotto, I., & Walker, C. K. (2013). Infertility and its treatments in association with autism spectrum disorders: A review and results from the CHARGE study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10, 3715–3734.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Lyall, K., Pauls, D. L., Spiegelman, D., Santangelo, S. L., & Ascherio, A. (2012). Fertility therapies, infertility and autism spectrum disorders in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26, 361–372.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Ornoy, A., Weinstein-Fudim, L., & Ergaz, Z. (2016). Genetic syndromes, maternal diseases and antenatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 316. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00316.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Ott, J., Kurz, C., Braun, R., Promberger, R., Seemann, R., Vytiska-Binstorfer, E., & Walch, K. (2014). Overt hypothyroidism is associated with the presence of uterine leiomyoma: A retrospective analysis. European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 177, 19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Palomba, S., Marotta, R., Di Cello, A., Russo, T., Falbo, A., Orio, F., Tolino, A., Zullo, F., Esposito, R., & La Sala, G. B. (2012). Pervasive developmental disorders in children of hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A longitudinal case-control study. Clinical Endocrinology, 77, 898–904.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Parazzini, F., Tozzi, L., & Bianchi, S. (2016). Pregnancy outcome and uterine fibroids. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 34, 74–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sandin, S., Nygren, K. G., Iliadou, A., Hultman, C. M., & Reichenberg, A. (2013). Autism and mental retardation among offspring born after in vitro fertilization. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 10, 75–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schendel, D. E., Diguiseppi, C., Croen, L. A., Fallin, M. D., Reed, P. L., Schieve, L. A., Wiggins, L. D., Daniels, J., Grether, J., Levy, S. E., et al. (2012). The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): A multisite epidemiologic study of autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) network. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2121–2140.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Schieve, L. A., Fountain, C., Boulet, S. L., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Kissin, D. M., Jamieson, D. J., Rice, C., & Bearman, P. (2015). Does autism diagnosis age or symptom severity differ among children according to whether assisted reproductive technology was used to achieve pregnancy? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2991–3003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Schieve, L. A., Rice, C., Devine, O., Maenner, M. J., Lee, L. C., Fitzgerald, R., Wingate, M. S., Schendel, D., Pettygrove, S., Van Naarden Braun, K. et al. (2011). Have secular changes in perinatal risk factors contributed to the recent autism prevalence increase? Development and application of a mathematical assessment model. Annals of Epidemiology, 21, 930–945.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Tobias, D. K., Gaskins, A. J., Missmer, S. A., Hu, F. B., Manson, J. E., Buck Louis, G. M., Zhang, C., & Chavarro, J. E. (2015). History of infertility and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study. Diabetologia, 58, 707–715.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Vannuccini, S., Clifton, V. L., Fraser, I. S., Taylor, H. S., Critchley, H., Giudice, L. C., & Petraglia, F. (2016). Infertility and reproductive disorders: Impact of hormonal and inflammatory mechanisms on pregnancy outcome. Human Reproduction Update, 22, 104–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wen, W., & Wen, S. W. (2014). Expanding upon the ‘extreme male brain’ theory of autism as a common link between other major risk factors: A hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 82, 615–618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Young, A. M., Chakrabarti, B., Roberts, D., Lai, M. C., Suckling, J., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2016). From molecules to neural morphology: Understanding neuroinflammation in autism spectrum condition. Molecular Autism, 7, 9. doi:10.1186/s13229-016-0068-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Zachor, D. A., & Ben Itzchak, E. (2011). Assisted reproductive technology and risk for autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 2950–2956.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura A. Schieve
    • 1
  • Carolyn Drews-Botsch
    • 2
  • Shericka Harris
    • 1
  • Craig Newschaffer
    • 3
  • Julie Daniels
    • 4
  • Carolyn DiGuiseppi
    • 5
  • Lisa A. Croen
    • 6
  • Gayle C. Windham
    • 7
  1. 1.National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental DisabilitiesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Dornsife School of Public HealthDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Gillings Scholl of Global Public HealthThe University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.Colorado School of Public HealthUniversity of Colorado Anschutz Medical CampusAuroraUSA
  6. 6.Kaiser PermanenteOaklandUSA
  7. 7.California Department of Public HealthRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations