Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 47, Issue 10, pp 3040–3048 | Cite as

Quantitative Aspects of Communicative Impairment Ascertained in a Large National Survey of Japanese Children

  • Manabu OiEmail author
  • Hiroshi Fujino
  • Naotake Tsukidate
  • Yoko Kamio
  • Yuko Yoshimura
  • Mitsuru Kikuchi
  • Chiaki Hasegawa
  • Keiko Gondou
  • Tomoko Matsui
Original Paper


The Japanese version of the Children’s Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) was rated by caregivers in a large national population sample of 22,871 children aged 3–15 years. The General Communication Composite (GCC) of the CCC-2 exhibited a distribution with a single-factor structure. The GCC distribution between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and language impairment (LI) groups in the general population fit inside a bell curve with significant overlap with the general population, and a continuum was evident between groups. No evidence of a natural cutoff that would differentiate categorically affected from unaffected children was seen. The Social Interaction Deviance Composite (SIDC) supported the notion that ASD and LI are on the opposite endpoints of a SIDC continuum of communication impairment.


Autism Language impairment Communication Checklist 



We would like to thank Professor Dorothy Bishop for her comments on our manuscript.


This research was supported by a grant (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 23330276) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to Dr. Oi; and by research grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan to Dr. Kamio (H19-KOKORO-006 and H20-KOKORO-004).

Authors Contributions

MO has written the manuscript. HF has conducted primary component analysis, NT has conducted confirmatory factor analysis. YK has provided framework for the manuscript. YY, MK and CH have provided data for the ASD group including ADOS and K-ABC scores. KG and TM have helped MO writing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

The current study was approved by the medical research ethics committee at Kanazawa University and performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. The study protocol was also approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participant children before the study began.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.United Graduate School of Child DevelopmentKanazawa UniversityKanazawaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationTokyo Gakugei UniversityKoganeiJapan
  3. 3.Department of HumanitiesYamanshi Eiwa CollegeKofuJapan
  4. 4.Department of Child and Adolescent Mental HealthNational Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and PsychiatryKodairaJapan
  5. 5.Research Center for Child Mental DevelopmentKanazawaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Child Studies, Faculty of Home EconomicsKyoritsu Women’s UniversityChiyodaJapan
  7. 7.Center for Research in International EducationTokyo Gakugei UniversityKoganeiJapan

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